Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Gentiana punctata is endemic to the Alps and other mountain ranges in central and south-eastern Europe, where it is found at elevations above 1,500 metres (Lipman 2009, Marhold 2011).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is a rhizomatous perennial herbaceous plant found in Alpine grassland, pastures and scrub in siliceous bedrock, often on very steep slopes (Kozuharova and Anchev 2006, Lipman 2009).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Khela, S.

Reviewer/s
Leaman, D.J. & Miller, R.M.

Contributor/s
Boršić, I, Shuka, L. & Turonova, D.

Justification
Global and European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)

Gentiana punctata is a medicinal and aromatic plant endemic to the Alps and other mountain ranges in Central and Southeastern Europe. Its population status is not entirely clear; it is rare and/or declining in several countries, but has been reported as stable across central Europe, where population declines are apparently balanced out by equivalent increases. It is threatened in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Germany and Serbia, but benefits from protection and bans or regulations in all of those countries except Czech Republic, plus several others. It is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large overall population, it occurs in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
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Population

Population
The number of individuals is not known. In Bulgaria it is said to be very restricted with low density; detailed studies from 2001-2011 have shown declines and even extinction of some populations (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 2011). It is rare in Italy (Lipman 2009). It is also rare in the Czech Republic, where it occurs at fewer than five localities and 1-2 subpopulations are known to have become extinct, though the extant subpopulations are not clearly declining (Grulich 2012). In Albania, it is known from only one locality in Cerem (Tropoja District), with less than 1000 individuals (L. Shuka pers. comm. 2013). The population in Central Europe has been considered stable, as declines are balanced out by equivalent increases (Bundesamt für Naturschutz 2012).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is threatened by collection as a medicinal plant for personal use and for export (as the whole plant is dug out for the roots), active development of mountain tourism, road construction, low reproductive output, low survival rate of seedlings and delayed flowering and threat from fires (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 2011). Encroachment of calcareous grasslands and heathland use were threats to the species in Germany prior to 1988, and could still be threats elsewhere in its range today (Bundesamt für Naturschutz 2012).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Gentiana punctata is listed as Critically Endangered in the Czech Republic (Holub and Procházka 2000, Grulich 2012), and is is assessed as Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii); C2a(i) in Bulgaria (Petrova and Vladimirov 2009, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 2011). It is Least Concern in Switzerland (Moser et al. 2002) and threatened in Germany (classification 3: gefährdet), where it is protected on the Federal Nature Conservation Act (Bundesamt für Naturschutz 2012). It is considered to be Vulnerable in Serbia where there is a quota in force (Lipman 2009).

Its use in Bulgaria is banned and it is protected in Montenegro (“Official Gazette SRCG”, No. 36/82) and Switzerland. It is listed as a priority species for ex situ micropropagation and has been established in in vitro propagation; three accessions have been deposited in the National Gene Bank of Serbia and Montenegro (Lipman 2009, Vinterhalter et al. 1998). In Bulgaria it is protected by the National Biodiversity Act and located within Natura 2000 sites (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 2011). The whole genus Gentiana has been legally protected in Croatia and noted in the Ordinance on Proclamation of Wild Taxa as Protected and Strictly Protected (Official Gazette 99/09) (I. Boršić pers. comm. 2013).

This species is found in four Natura 2000 sites in Greece, one in Austria, five in Bulgaria, forty four in Italy, two in Poland, three in Slovakia and six in Romania (European Environment Agency 2010). It has been identified as a target species for the SEEDNet Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Working Group (Lipman et al. 2009).
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