Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
Gentiana punctata is a medicinal and aromatic plant endemic to the Alps and other mountain ranges in Central and Southeastern Europe. Its population status is not entirely clear; it is rare and/or declining in several countries, but has been reported as stable across central Europe, where population declines are apparently balanced out by equivalent increases. It is threatened in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Germany and Serbia, but benefits from protection and bans or regulations in all of those countries except Czech Republic, plus several others. It is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large overall population, it occurs in a number of protected areas, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Its use in Bulgaria is banned and it is protected in Montenegro (“Official Gazette SRCG”, No. 36/82) and Switzerland. It is listed as a priority species for ex situ micropropagation and has been established in in vitro propagation; three accessions have been deposited in the National Gene Bank of Serbia and Montenegro (Lipman 2009, Vinterhalter et al. 1998). In Bulgaria it is protected by the National Biodiversity Act and located within Natura 2000 sites (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 2011). The whole genus Gentiana has been legally protected in Croatia and noted in the Ordinance on Proclamation of Wild Taxa as Protected and Strictly Protected (Official Gazette 99/09) (I. Boršić pers. comm. 2013).
This species is found in four Natura 2000 sites in Greece, one in Austria, five in Bulgaria, forty four in Italy, two in Poland, three in Slovakia and six in Romania (European Environment Agency 2010). It has been identified as a target species for the SEEDNet Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Working Group (Lipman et al. 2009).
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