Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Arabic (4) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

The Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is native to the new world in tropical regions from the southern US to Argentina. It is known for its destructive larval phase, a serious agricultural pest that can wreak havoc with crops if left to multiply. While it will eat a very broad range of plants, its preferred food is small grain crops and grasses, including field corn, sweet corn, sorghum, alfalfa, barley, Bermuda grass, buckwheat, cotton, clover, corn, oat, millet, peanut, rice, ryegrass, sorghum, sugarbeet, sudangrass, soybean, sugarcane, timothy, tobacco, and wheat. The armyworm’s name is derived from its feeding habits: in a large numbers, armyworms will consume everything in an area and once the food supply is exhausted the entire "army" will move to the next available food source. Caterpillars grow to about 50 mm long. It pupates underground, hatching into a small, nocturnal brown and grey moth (wingspan: 32 to 40 mm). The fall armyworm does not undergo diapause, and cannot survive long periods of cold weather. Adult moths, however, are strong flyers which disperse long distances, and in summer months it is found in almost all states east of the Rocky Mountains. More northern states only see one generation per year, while in warmer states, especially Florida and Texas, where the fall armyworm inflicts most of its damage on US crops, moths can even be found year-round and the species undergoes up to four generations in a year. Methods of control include insecticides (especially those applied during early vegetation and reproduction stages in corn), cultural practices of planting early, and the application of the bacterial pathogen bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is sometimes effective. A sex hormone has been identified and is used in pheromone traps to monitor populations.

Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9 and Sf21 cell lines) are commonly used in biomedical research for the purpose of recombinant protein expression using insect-specific viruses called baculoviruses.

(Capinera 1999; Wikipedia 2011)

  • Ashley TR, Wiseman BR, Davis FM, Andrews KL. 1989. The fall armyworm: a bibliography. Florida Entomologist 72: 152-202.
  • Capinera, J.L. 1999, latest revision November 2005. Fall Armyworm. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Featured Creatures. Publication number: EENY-98 Retrieved September 23, 2011 from http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/field/fall_armyworm.htm
  • Foster RE. 1989. Strategies for protecting sweet corn ears from damage by fall armyworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in southern Florida. Florida Entomologist 72: 146-151.
  • Luginbill P. 1928. The Fall Armyworm. USDA Technical Bulletin 34. 91 pp.
  • Marenco RJ, Foster RE, Sanchez CA. 1992. Sweet corn response to fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) damage during vegetative growth. Journal of Economic Entomology 85: 1285-1292.
  • Mitchell ER. 1978. Relationship of planting date to damage by earworms in commercial sweet corn in north central Florida. Florida Entomologist 61: 251-255.
  • Pair SD, Gross HR Jr. 1984. Field mortality of pupae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), by predators and a newly discovered parasitoid, Diapetimorpha introita. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 19: 22-26.
  • Pitre HN, Hogg DB. 1983. Development of the fall armyworm on cotton, soybean and corn. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 18: 187-194.
  • Sparks AN. 1979. A review of the biology of the fall armyworm. Florida Entomologist 62: 82-87.
  • Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 31 August, 2011. Army worm. Retrieved September 23, 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Army_worm&oldid=447715701
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Supplier: Dana Campbell

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Associations

Flowering Plants Visited by Spodoptera frugiperda in Illinois

Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith: Noctuidae, Lepidoptera
(this observation is from Graenicher; this is the Fall Armyworm Moth)

Hamamelidaceae: Hamamelis virginiana sn (Gr)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Spodoptera frugiperda

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 51 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CGAAAATGACTTTATTCAACAAATCATAAAGATATTGGAACATTATATTTTATTTTTGGAATTTGAGCAGGGATAGTAGGTACTTCTTTA---AGTTTATTAATTCGAGCTGAATTAGGGACTCCAGGATCTTTAATTGGAGAT---GATCAAATTTATAATACTATTGTAACAGCTCATGCTTTTATTATAATTTTTTTTATAGTTATACCTATTATAATTGGAGGATTTGGAAATTGACTTGTACCTTTAATA---TTAGGAGCCCCTGATATAGCTTTCCCACGTATAAATAATATAAGTTTTTGACTTTTACCCCCATCTTTAACTTTATTAATTTCTAGTAGCATTGTAGAAAATGGAGCAGGAACTGGATGAACAGTTTACCCCCCCCTCTCCTCTAATATTGCTCATGGCGGTAGTTCAGTAGATTTA---GCTATTTTCTCACTTCATTTAGCTGGAATTTCATCTATTTTAGGAGCTATTAACTTTATTACTACTATTATTAATATACGATTAAATAATTTATCATTTGATCAAATACCTTTATTTATTTGAGCTGTAGGTATTACTGCATTCTTATTATTATTATCTTTACCTGTTTTAGCCGGA---GCTATTACTATATTACTTACTGATCGAAATTTAAATACATCATTTTTCGATCCTGCAGGTGGAGGTGATCCTATTCTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Spodoptera frugiperda

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 57
Specimens with Barcodes: 143
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Fall armyworm

The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is part of the order of Lepidoptera and is the caterpillar life stage of a moth. It is regarded as a pest and can wreak havoc with crops if left to multiply. Its name is derived from its feeding habits. They will eat everything in an area and once the food supply is exhausted the entire "army" will move to the next available food source.

Description[edit]

The larvae are a dull yellow to gray with stripes running down the length of the body. The mature caterpillar is approximately 1.5 to 2 inches (51 mm) in length.[1]

Illustration

Habitats[edit]

The fall armyworm is widely distributed in eastern and central North America and in South America; it cannot survive freezing temperatures.[2][3]

Fall armyworm

Feeding habits[edit]

The armyworm's diet consists mainly of grasses and small grain crops. An infestation is hard to detect as the caterpillars migrate to new feeding areas in the cool of the night. When the caterpillars near maturity, they can lay waste to an entire crop in a few days.

Infestations[edit]

In 1998, Illinois was hard hit by fall armyworms.[4]

Research use[edit]

Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9 and Sf21 cell lines) are commonly used in biomedical research for the purpose of recombinant protein expression using insect-specific viruses called baculoviruses.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kathy L. Flanders, Donald M. Ball, Patricia P. Cobb. University of Alabama and Auburn University Extension Office. August 2011. Management of Fall Armyworm in Pastures and Hayfields
  2. ^ Murúa MG et al. (2009) Natural distribution of parasitoids of larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina Journal of Insect Science 9(20)
  3. ^ Meagher RL and Nagoshi RN (2004) Population dynamics and occurrence of Spodoptera frugiperda host strains in southern Florida Ecological Entomology 29(5): s 614–620
  4. ^ Mike Gray, University of Illinois Extension Office. July 10, 1998 Fall Armyworms: Many Southern Illinois Cornfields Are Infested
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!