Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Distribution: Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Dorsal fin with 9-14 spines; soft rays 11-26. Three spines in anal fin; soft rays 6-18. Small mouth. Usually cardiform jaw teeth. Vomer generally toothless. Usually with enlarged chin pores. Branchiostegal rays 7. Vertebrae 26 or 27 (10 or 11 + 16). To about 60 cm maximum length. Sometimes assigned to Pomadasyidae.
  • MASDEA (1997).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Oblong, compressed, perchlike fishes to 75 cm total length. Head profile strongly convex in most species.Mouth small to moderate, lips often thick;chin with 2 pores anteriorly and, in all but 1 genus, a median groove. Teeth conical, in a narrow band in each jaw, the outer series enlarged but no canines.No teeth on roof of mouth.Posterior margin of suborbital not exposed; preopercle with posterior margin slightly concave and serrated; opercle with 1 spine. Dorsal fin single, with 11 to 14 strong spines and generally 11 to 19 soft rays. Pectoral fins moderately long; pelvic fins below base of pectoral fins, with 1 spine
and 5 soft rays. Anal fin with 3 strong spines, the second often very prominent, and 6 to 13 soft rays; caudal fin emarginate to forked. Scales ctenoid (rough to touch), small or moderate, extending onto entire head (except front of snout, lips, and chin). Colour: highly variable, ranging from uniformly coloured to striped, banded, blotched and spotted. Adult stages of most species have distinctive colour patterns. Early juveniles (2 to 5 cm) of Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Orthopristis share a pattern of dark dorsolateral and midlateral stripes, and a caudal spot.The length of the upper eye stripe, coupled with other characters, is essential to separating the extremely similar early juvenile stages of Haemulon.The early juvenile pigment pattern can also be ephemerally displayed in adults of many species.

(Lindeman & Toxey , 2002)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Van Thiel, Lauren

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Look Alikes

Lookalikes

Lutjanidae: canine teeth frequently present in jaws; no pores on chin; teeth present on roof of mouth; suborbital area scaleless; spines of dorsal and anal fins weaker.

Sciaenidae: anal fin with never more than two spines; lateral-line scales extending to posterior margin of caudal fin; often with rounded snout; barbels or canine-like teeth sometimes present; swimbladder usually large and complex (except in Menticirrhus where it is rudimentary, or absent). Gerreidae: anterior part of lower head profile concave;mouth strongly protrusible; interorbital region slightly concave.

Sparidae: suborbital area scaleless; no serrations on margin of preopercle; 2 pores not present beneath chin.

(Lindeman & Toxey, 2002)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Van Thiel, Lauren

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Fishes of shallow, nearshore waters; nearly all from tropical and subtropical waters. Many species of Haemulon and Anisotremus inhabit coral reef or hardbottom areas and many forage nocturnally over nearby sand and grass flats. Juveniles typically occur in shallower water than adults and may show several ontogenetic habitat shifts during growth.

(Lindeman & Toxey, 2002)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Van Thiel, Lauren

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Most species feed on a variety of benthic invertebrates, particularly crustaceans and polychaetes. Several smaller species may primarily feed on plankton, while several larger species feed in part on echinoids.

(Lindeman & Toxey, 2002)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Van Thiel, Lauren

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

Schooling is present in many species, but may become less common in older individuals.

(Lindeman & Toxey, 2002)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Van Thiel, Lauren

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Reproduction

The absence of documented spawning events suggests that reporduction typically occurs after sunset.

(Lindeman & Toxey, 2002)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Van Thiel, Lauren

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:1,417Public Records:716
Specimens with Sequences:1,271Public Species:102
Specimens with Barcodes:1,224Public BINs:98
Species:118         
Species With Barcodes:115         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Haemulidae

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Threats

Juvenile mortality from shrimp trawl bycatch is high in several species. Fishing gear includes traps, hook-and-line, seines,
and bottom trawls. FAO statistics from Area 31 report landings ranging from 11 335 to 18 081 t annually from
1995 to 1999.

(Lindeman & Toxey, 2002)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Van Thiel, Lauren

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Several grunts are considered good foodfish and are actively fished for. Due to their abundance, many species are also obtained opportunistically and exploited commercially or recreationally.

(Lindeman & Toxey, 2002)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Van Thiel, Lauren

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Haemulidae

The grunts are a family, Haemulidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. They are numerous and widespread, with about 150 species in 19 genera, found in tropical fresh, brackish, and salt waters around the world. They are bottom-feeding predators, and named for their ability to produce sound by grinding their teeth.[1] They also engage in mutualistic relationship with cleaner gobies of genus Elacatinus, allowing them to feed on ectoparasites on their bodies. [2]


Timeline[edit]

QuaternaryNeogenePaleogeneHolocenePleist.Plio.MioceneOligoceneEocenePaleoceneAnisotremusPlectorhinchusBrachydeuterusXenistiusPomadasysParapristopomaOrthopristisIsaciaQuaternaryNeogenePaleogeneHolocenePleist.Plio.MioceneOligoceneEocenePaleocene

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Johnson, G.D. & Gill, A.C. (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N., ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 184. ISBN 0-12-547665-5. 
  2. ^ Ivan Sazima, Cristina Sazima, Ronaldo B. Francini-Filho, Rodrigo L. Moura (September 2000). "Daily cleaning activity and diversity of clients of the barber goby, Elacatinus figaro, on rocky reefs in southeastern Brazil". Environmental Biology of Fishes 59 (1): 69–77. 10.1023/A:1007655819374. 

References[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!