T. minima occurs from Europe east through Siberia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Mongolia, Pakistan and Kazakhstan to China. In Europe, it occurs mainly in the centre and south to the Mediterranean.
This species found at several locations in Turkey: Malatya: 10 km from Darende to Malatya, 970 m; Elazığ: Cip köyü dam, 1,000 m; Erzincan: near Tercan, by Karasu, 1,440 m; Erzurum: Uzundere, Tortum Gölü; Niğde: 19 km from Çamardi to Solakli, 1,300 m; Adana: Pozantı, bank of Seyhan River and Seyhan Dam Lake; Adıyaman: 20 km from Adıyaman to Gölbaşı, Göksu valley, Göksu River between Besni and Adıyaman (Davis 1965-1985, Seçmen and Leblebici 1997).
Typha minima is found at two another important wetlands: Göksu Deltası and Seyhan Deltası (Adana) (Özhatay et al. 2005).
Habitat and Ecology
Life History and Behavior
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
T. minima is classed as Extinct in Hungary, Liechtenstein, and the Czech Republic, Critically Endangered in Austria, Croatia and Germany, and Endangered in Greece, Serbia and Switzerland. It appears likely that it is declining throughout its European range.
In Hungary, there were formerly up to five known localities, on the Danube and Draba rivers, however it has not been seen since the 1940s and is probably extinct. It is found in only one locality in western Greece in the Peloponnese, at the Kladeos river banks on alluvial deposits. There it forms dense stands but the size of the population is unknown.
It has recently been discovered in southern Albania at the Devolli river and is classed as new for the Albanian flora (Mullaj and Tan 2010).
In Turkey, it is known several locations but we do not have enough information about its population.
New populations from garden centres sold as T. minima are T. lugdinensis, but they are used sometimes for recovery programmes in secondary habitats. Hybridisation and outcrossing might become a problem.
This taxon is threatened by wetland drying works, pesticides, agriculture, housing constructions and tourism actions in Turkey.
This species is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention).T. minima is classed as Extinct in Hungary and Liechtenstein, Critically Endangered in Austria, Croatia and Germany, Endangered in Serbia, Greece (B2ab(iii), D2) and Switzerland and is protected in the Rhône-Alpes region of France. Information on its status and conservation needs in other countries is lacking.
It is suggested to monitor the populations, increase awareness of the local community, and to collect seeds for ex situ conservation measures. Some wetlands under protection, like Göksu Delta and Seyhan Delta in Turkey, but protection measures are not sufficient as sanctions are not implemented.
The biological form of Typha minima is hemicryptophyte hydrophyte, meaning that they are plants with submerged overwintering buds, adapted to living in aquatic environments. Vegetative propagation takes place by means of a short 5 to 8 millimeters thick rhizome, that grow up to 20 cm deep in the ground.
Typha minima is the smallest of the cattails. It reaches on average 30–80 centimetres (12–31 in) in height, with a maximum of 140 centimetres (55 in). The stem is erect and simple. The leaves are blue-green, linear, very narrow and not shiny. They reach up to 30 centimetres (12 in) in length and 1–3 millimetres (0.039–0.118 in) in width.
These plants are monoecious, with the male and female reproductive structures borne on the same plant but packed into two separate inflorescences. The minute flowers are unisexual and wind-pollinated. Male (staminate) flowers are yellowish, while female (pistillate) flowers are greenish. The female inflorescence is brownish, ellipsoid, 2–5 centimetres (0.79–1.97 in) long, with an hairy rachis after the fall of the flowers. It is separated from the male inflorescence by a naked stem section, about 1 centimetre (0.39 in) long. The male inflorescence is thinner and longer, at the top of the vertical stem. The female flowers have one stalked ovary, surrounded by a thick fringe of hair. The three individual stamens of the male flowers are surrounded by just a few hairs. At the end of blooming the male flowers disperse, leaving the top of the stem naked, while the female inflorescence turns into a brown round seed spike. The main flowering period lasts from May through June. Another flowering period may occurs in August.
This rare plant is widespread in temperate Europe and Asia, but it is threatened with extinction. The distribution is limited to the rivers of the Alps and the Apennines and to the Balkans, the Danube region and the mountains of central Asia.
Typha minima is a light-loving plant and cannot tolerate shade. It grows on periodically flooded banks of slow flowing, cool and pure waters, along lake margins, in marshes, ponds and swamps, at an altitude of 0–1,000 metres (0–3,281 ft) above sea level.
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