The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • A. C. Twomey, The bird population of an elm-maple forest with special reference to aspection, territorialism, and coactions, Ecol. Monogr. 15(2):175-205, from p. 202 (1945).
  • Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A., and Christopher H. C. Lyal. 1999. A World Catalogue of Families and Genera of Curculionoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera) (Excepting Scotylidae and Platypodidae). 315
  • E. Holm and C. H. Scholtz, Structure and pattern of the Namib Desert dune ecosystem at Gobabeb, Madoqua 12(1):3-39, from p. 21 (1980).
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • K. Paviour-Smith, The biotic community of a salt meadow in New Zealand, Trans. R. Soc. N.Z. 83(3):525-554, from p. 542 (1956).
  • L. W. Swan, The ecology of the high Himalayas, Sci. Am. 205:68-78, from pp. 76-77 (October 1961).
  • Lawrence, J. F., and A. F. Newton, Jr. / Pakaluk, James, and Stanislaw Adam Slipinski, eds. 1995. Families and subfamilies of Coleoptera (with selected genera, notes, references and data on family-group names). Biology, Phylogeny, and Classification of Coleoptera: Papers Celebrating the 80th Birthday of Roy A. Crowson, vol. 2. 779-1006
  • Poole, Robert W., and Patricia Gentili, eds. 1996. Coleoptera. Nomina Insecta Nearctica: A Check List of the Insects of North America, vol. 1: Coleoptera, Strepsiptera. 14-820
  • WoRMS (2015). Curculionidae Latreille, 1802. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Wootton, A. 1984. Insects of the World. Blandford. 224 p.


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