The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Al-Ogily SM. 1985. Further experiments on larval behavior of the tubicolous polychaete Spirorbis inornatus L'Hardy & Quivreux. Journal Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 86:285-298.
  • Bell SS, Brooks RA, Robbins BD, Fonseca MS, and MO Hall. 2001. Faunal response to fragmentation in seagrass habitats: Implications for seagrass conservation. Biological Conservation 100:115-123.
  • Benedetti-Cecchi L, Bertocci I, Vaselli S, Maggi E, Bulleri F. 2008. Neutrality and the Response of Rare Species to Environmental Variance. PLoS ONE 3(7): e2777. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002777
  • Bergen P. 1953. On the anatomy and reproduction biology in Spirorbis Daudin. Nytt Mag. Zool., 1:1-26.
  • Bingham BL. 1992. Life histories in an epifaunal community: Coupling of adult and larval processes. Ecology Vol 73(6): 2244-2259.
  • Daly JM and DW Golding. 1977. A description of the spermatheca of Spirorbis (L.) (Polychaeta:Serpulidae) and evidence for a novel mode of sperm transmission. Journal Marine Biological Association 57: 219-227.
  • Daudin F.M. 1800. Recueil de mémoires et de notes sur des espèces inédites ou peu connues de mollusques, de vers et de zoophytes. Paris: Fuchs; Treutel et Wurtz; pp. 50 + 4 pl.
  • DeSilva PHDH 1962. Experiments on the choice of sub- strate by Spirorbis larvae (Serpulidae). Journal Experimental Biology 39: 483-490.
  • Dirnberger JM. 1990. Benthic determinants of settlement for planktonic larvae: Availability of settlement sites for the tube-buildng polychaete Spirorbis spirilum (Linneaus) settling onto seagrass blades. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 140:89-105.
  • Fauchald K 1977. The Polychaete Worms. Definitions and Keys to the Orders, Families and Genera. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, in conjunction with the Allan Hancock Foundation, University of Southern California Science Series 28. 199 p.
  • Fenical W. 1993. Chemical studies of marine bacteria: developing a new resource. Chem. Rev. 93: 1673-1683.
  • Gee JM and GB Williams. 1965. Self and cross-fertilization in Spirorbis borealis and S. pagenstecheri. Journal Marine Biological Association United Kingdom, 45: 275-285.
  • Ghiselin MT. 1969. The evolution of hermaphroditism among animals. Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 44(2), pp. 189-208.
  • Gibson RN, Atkinson RJA, and JDM Gordon. 2005. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. CRC Press. 600 p.
  • Hedley RH. 1956. Studies of serpulid tube formation. II. The calcium secreting glands in the peristomium of Spirorbis, Hydroides, and Serpula. Quarterly Journal Microscopic. Science. 97: 421-427.
  • Ivany LC, Portell RW, and DS Jones. 1990. Animal-plant relationships and paleobiogeography of an Eocene seagrass community from Florida. PALAIOS, Vol. 5,(3), pp. 244-258.
  • Knight-Jones EW 1951. Gregariousness and some other aspects of the settling behavior of Spirorbis. Journal Marine Biological Association, United Kingdom. 30: 201-222.
  • MacKay TFC and Doyle RW. 1978. An ecological genetic analysis of the settling behavior of a marine polychaete: Causes of settlement patterns in a serpulid polychaete I. Probability of settlement and gregarious behavior. Heredity 40: 1-12.
  • Mook D. 1983. Responses of common fouling organisms in the Indian River, Florida, to various predation and disturbance intensities. Estuaries 6:372-379.
  • Mook DH. 1981. Effects of disturbance and initial settlement on fouling community structure. Ecology, Vol. 62(3): 522-526.
  • Nott JA and KR Parkes. 1975. Calcium accumulation and secretion in the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis spirorbis at settlement. Journal Marine Biological Association, United Kingdom 55: 911-923.
  • Potswald HE. 1968. The biology of fertilization and brood protection in Spirorbis (Laeospira) morchi. Biological Bulletin, Vol. 135(1) pp. 208-222.
  • R. T. Paine, Food webs: linkage, interaction strength and community infrastructure, J. Anim. Ecol. 49:667-685, from p. 670 (1980).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 278 (1947).
  • Rice SA. 1978. Spermatophores and sperm transfer in spionid polychaetes: Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, Vol. 97(2 ) pp. 160-170.
  • Rothlisberg PC. 1974. Reproduction in Spirorbis (Spirorbella) marioni Caullery & Mesnil (polychaeta: Serpulidae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 15:285-297.
  • Rzhavsky, A. (2014). Spirorbis Daudin, 1800. In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2014) World Polychaeta database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Schively, MA. 1897. The anatomy and development of Spirorbis borealis Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. 49 pp. 153-160.
  • Shulman JSW. 1968. Fauna associated with pelagic sargassum in the Gulf Stream. American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 80 (2) pp. 554-558.
  • Stebbing ARD 1972. Preferential settlement of a bryozoan and serpulid larvae on the younger parts of Laminaria fronds. Journal Marine Biological Association, United Kingdom. 52: 765-772.
  • Thompson M. 1997. Epibionts on the carapaces of sick and injured sea turtles in southwest Florida during a time of frequent red tide. Unpublished undergraduate thesis, New College, FL.
  • W. G. Hewatt, Ecological studies on selected marine intertidal communities of Monterey Bay, California, Am. Midl. Nat. 18(2):161-206, from p. 196 (1937).
  • Walters MG, Hadfield, KA. del Carme. 1997. In the importance of larval choice and hydrodynamics in creating aggregations of Hydroides elegans (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) vertebrate Biology Vol. 116 (2) pp. 102-114.
  • Wressnig A and DJ Booth. 2007. Feeding of two seagrass grazing monacanthid fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 71:272-278.


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