Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in the Mexican states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, and Sonora (Hunt et al. 2006). It generally occurs at altitudes below 200 m asl, but can be found up to 1,000 m asl.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Type collection for Cereus pringlei S. Watson
Catalog Number: US 1821057
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. G. Pringle
Year Collected: 1884
Locality: Sonora, Mexico, North America
  • Type collection: Watson, S. 1885. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 20: 368.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
On the continent the species is usually coastal, but with some populations inland (less than 50-75 km inland). On the peninsula it is widespread, except at tops of mountains.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Burquez Montijo, A.

Reviewer/s
Superina, M. & Goettsch, B.K.

Contributor/s

Justification
Pachycereus pringlei is listed as Least Concern because it is widespread and locally abundant. However, the subpopulations on the continent (which include the largest individuals) are in serious decline.
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Population

Population
The species is locally very abundant. It has an extensive distribution.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Most subpopulations on the peninsula are stable, but in some areas they have been extirpated particularly by coastal developments. Subpopulations on the continent have been heavily impacted by coastal developments for tourism and shrimp farming. Subpopulations on the islands are very stable.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species occurs in several protected areas in the peninsula (Sierra la Laguna, Reserva de la Biósfera Desierto del Vizcaíno, Valle de los Cirios, islands of Gulf of California). It does not occur in protected areas on the continent.
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Wikipedia

Pachycereus pringlei

Pachycereus pringlei, also known as Mexican giant cardon or elephant cactus,(Ge'ez: ቆልቋል kolkal) is a species of cactus native to northwestern Mexico in the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, and Sonora. It is commonly known as cardón, a name derived from the Spanish word cardo, meaning "thistle."[2]

Large stands of these magnificent cactus still exist, but many have been destroyed as land has been cleared for cultivation in Sonora.

The fruit of this cactus was an important food for the Seri people in Sonora, who call the cactus xaasj.[3]

The flesh of this cactus contains alkaloids, and may have been used as a psychoactive plant in Mexico.[4]

A symbiotic relationship with bacterial and fungal colonies on its roots allows P. pringlei to grow on bare rock even where no soil is available at all, as the bacteria can fix nitrogen from the air and break down the rock to produce nutrients. The cactus even packages symbiotic bacteria in with its seeds.[5][6][7]

Morphology[edit]

Cardon is the tallest cactus species in the world, with a maximum recorded height of 19.2 m (63 ft),[8] with a stout trunk up to 1 m (3.3 ft) in diameter bearing several erect branches. In overall appearance, it resembles the related saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea), but differs in:

  • fewer ribs on the stems
  • more heavily branched
  • branching occurs nearer the base of the stem
  • areoles and spination differ
  • the location of the blossoms, lower along the stem
  • fruit heavily spiny

Its flowers are white, large, nocturnal, and appear along the ribs as opposed to only apices of the stems.

Lifespan and growth[edit]

An average mature cardon may reach a height of 10 m, but individuals as tall as 18 m are known. [9] It is a slow-growing plant [10] with a lifespan measured in hundreds of years, but growth can be significantly enhanced in its initial stages by inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria such as Azospirillum sp. [11][12][13] Most adult cardon have several side branches that may be as massive as the trunk. The resulting tree may attain a weight of 25 tons. [14]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Taxon: Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson) Britton & Rose". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-08-29. Retrieved 2011-11-03. 
  2. ^ Chamlee, Bob. "Cardón cactus, Pachycereus pringlei". Los Cabos Guide to Good Eating and More!. Retrieved 2011-11-03. 
  3. ^ *Felger, Richard; Mary B. Moser. (1985). People of the desert and sea: ethnobotany of the Seri Indians. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-0818-6. 
  4. ^ Brown, Ethan (September 2002). "Professor X". Wired Magazine. 
  5. ^ Puente, M. E.; Y. Bashan; C. Y. Li; V. K. Lebsky (September 2004). "Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. I. Root colonization and weathering of igneous rocks". Plant Biology (Stuttgart) 6 (5): 629–42. doi:10.1055/s-2004-821100. PMID 15375735. 
  6. ^ Puente, M. E.; C. Y. Li; Y. Bashan (September 2004). "Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. II. Growth promotion of cactus seedlings". Plant Biology (Stuttgart) 6 (5): 643–50. doi:10.1055/s-2004-821101. PMID 15375736. 
  7. ^ Walker, Matt (2009-08-19). "How cacti become 'rock busters'". BBC News. 
  8. ^ Salak, M. "In search of the tallest cactus". Cactus and Succulent Journal 72 (3). 
  9. ^ (León de la Luz and Valiente 1994).
  10. ^ (Roberts, 1989)
  11. ^ (Bashan et al., 1999
  12. ^ Carrillo et al., 2000
  13. ^ Puente and Bashan, 1993
  14. ^ (Gibson and Nobel, 1986).
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