The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (November, 2008) http://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 10. Reyes-Agüero, J.A., Aguirre, J.R. and Valiente-Banuet, A. (2006) Reproductive biology of Opuntia: a review. Journal of Arid Environments, 64: 549 - 585.
  • 10. Hart, G. and Hart, S. (2005) The Cacti and Fauna of the Galapagos Islands: Interactions and Interdependence. Cactus and Succulent Journal, 77 (4): 164 - 169.
  • 2. CITES (November, 2008) http://www.cites.org External link.
  • 2. McMullen, C.K. (1999) Flowering Plants of the Galapagos. Cornell University Press, New York.
  • 3. Wiggins, I.L., Porter, D.M. and Anderson, E.F. (1971) Flora of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press, California.
  • 3. CITES (November, 2008) http://www.cites.org External link.
  • 4. McMullen, C.K. (1999) Flowering Plants of the Galapagos. Cornell University Press, New York.
  • 4. Estes, G., Grant, K.T. and Grant, P.R. (2000) Darwin In Galápagos: His Footsteps Through The Archipelago. Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 54 (3): 343 - 368.
  • 5. Lord Britton, N. and Rose, J.N. (1963) The Cactaceae: Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family. Courier Dover Publications, New York.
  • 5. Darwin, C.R. (1841) The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, Under the Command of Captain FitzRoy, R.N., During the Years 1832–1836. Part III: Birds. Smith Elder, London.
  • 6. Anderson, E.F. (2001) The cactus family. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
  • 6. Stacey, P.B. and Koenig, W.D. (1990) Cooperative Breeding in Birds: Long-term Studies of Ecology and Behavior. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • 7. Hamann, O. (2001) Demographic studies of three indigenous stand-forming plant taxa (Scalesia, Opuntia, and Bursera) in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Biodiversity and Conservation, 10: 223 - 250.
  • 7. Grant, B.R. and Grant, P.R. (1981) Exploitation of Opuntia cactus by birds on the Galapagos. Oecologia, 49: 179 - 187.
  • 8. The Charles Darwin Foundation (November, 2008) External link.
  • 8. Charles Darwin Foundation. (2006) Charles Darwin Research Station Fact Sheet: Opuntia cactus. Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands (AISBL), Galapagos, Ecuador. Available at External link.
  • 9. Jackson, M.H. (2001) Galapagos: A Natural History. University of Calgary Press, Calgary.
  • 9. Carrion, V., Donlan, C.J., Campbell, K., Lavoie, C. and Cruz, F. (2007) Feral donkey (Equus asinus) eradication in the Galápagos. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16: 437 - 445.
  • C.Michael Hogan. 2011. Cactus. Topic ed. Arthur Dawson. Ed.-in-chief Cutler J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
  • Darwin, Charles. 1890. Journal of Researches Into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited During the Voyage Round the World of H. M. S. 'Beagle' Under the Command of Captain Fitz Roy. New York City, NY : D. Appleton and Company; p. 427
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181. External link.
  • Lawesson, J. E., H. Adsersen & P. Bentley. 1987. An updated and annotated check list of the vascular plants of the Galapagos Islands. Rep. Bot. Inst. Univ. Aarhus 16: 1–74. External link.
  • Porter, D. M. 1983. Vascular plants of the Galapagos: Origins and dispersal. 33–54. In M. B. R. I. Bowman & A. E. Leviton Patt. Evol. Galapagos Org. Pacific Division, AAAS, San Francisco. External link.
  • SPECIMEN BASED RECORD. Published protolog data. External link.
  • Valencia Reyes, R., N. C. A. Pitman, S. León-Yánez & P. M. Jørgensen. 2000. Libro Rojo Pl. Endémic. Ecuador 2000 i–v, 1–489. Herbario QCA, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito. External link.
  • Wiggins, I. L. & D. M. Porter. 1971. Fl. Galápagos Isl. i–xx, 1–998. Stanford University Press, Stanford. External link.


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