The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (November, 2008) http://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 10. Reyes-Agüero, J.A., Aguirre, J.R. and Valiente-Banuet, A. (2006) Reproductive biology of Opuntia: a review. Journal of Arid Environments, 64: 549 - 585.
  • 10. Hart, G. and Hart, S. (2005) The Cacti and Fauna of the Galapagos Islands: Interactions and Interdependence. Cactus and Succulent Journal, 77 (4): 164 - 169.
  • 2. McMullen, C.K. (1999) Flowering Plants of the Galapagos. Cornell University Press, New York.
  • 2. CITES (November, 2008) http://www.cites.org External link.
  • 3. Wiggins, I.L., Porter, D.M. and Anderson, E.F. (1971) Flora of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press, California.
  • 3. CITES (November, 2008) http://www.cites.org External link.
  • 4. McMullen, C.K. (1999) Flowering Plants of the Galapagos. Cornell University Press, New York.
  • 4. Estes, G., Grant, K.T. and Grant, P.R. (2000) Darwin In Galápagos: His Footsteps Through The Archipelago. Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 54 (3): 343 - 368.
  • 5. Darwin, C.R. (1841) The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, Under the Command of Captain FitzRoy, R.N., During the Years 1832–1836. Part III: Birds. Smith Elder, London.
  • 5. Lord Britton, N. and Rose, J.N. (1963) The Cactaceae: Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family. Courier Dover Publications, New York.
  • 6. Anderson, E.F. (2001) The cactus family. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
  • 6. Stacey, P.B. and Koenig, W.D. (1990) Cooperative Breeding in Birds: Long-term Studies of Ecology and Behavior. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • 7. Hamann, O. (2001) Demographic studies of three indigenous stand-forming plant taxa (Scalesia, Opuntia, and Bursera) in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Biodiversity and Conservation, 10: 223 - 250.
  • 7. Grant, B.R. and Grant, P.R. (1981) Exploitation of Opuntia cactus by birds on the Galapagos. Oecologia, 49: 179 - 187.
  • 8. Charles Darwin Foundation. (2006) Charles Darwin Research Station Fact Sheet: Opuntia cactus. Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands (AISBL), Galapagos, Ecuador. Available at External link.
  • 8. The Charles Darwin Foundation (November, 2008) External link.
  • 9. Carrion, V., Donlan, C.J., Campbell, K., Lavoie, C. and Cruz, F. (2007) Feral donkey (Equus asinus) eradication in the Galápagos. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16: 437 - 445.
  • 9. Jackson, M.H. (2001) Galapagos: A Natural History. University of Calgary Press, Calgary.
  • Type fragment: Weber, A. A. 1898. Dict. Hort. 2: 894.


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