The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (April, 2009) External link.
  • 10. Hicks, D.J. and Mauchamp, A. (2000) Population structure and growth patterns of Opuntia echios var. gigantea along an elevational gradient in the Galápagos Islands. Biotropica, 32 (2): 235 - 243.
  • 11. Grant, B.R. and Grant, P.R. (1981) Exploitation of Opuntia cactus by birds on the Galápagos. Oecologia, 49: 179 - 187.
  • 12. Oldfield, S. (1997) Cactus and Succulent Plants: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cactus and Succulent Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
  • 13. UNEP-WCMC: Galápagos Islands National Park and Marine Reserve, Ecuador (May, 2009) External link.
  • 2. Wiggins, I.L. and Porter, D.M. (1971) Flora of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, California.
  • 3. Jackson, M.H. (1993) Galápagos: A Natural History. University of Calgary Press, Calgary.
  • 4. CITES (April, 2009) http://www.cites.org External link.
  • 5. Anderson, E.F. (2001) The Cactus Family. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
  • 6. Racine, C.H. and Downhower, J.F. (1974) Vegetative and reproductive strategies of Opuntia (Cactaceae) in the Galapagos Islands. Biotropica, 6 (3): 175 - 186.
  • 7. McMullen, C.K. (1999) Flowering Plants of the Galápagos. Cornell University Press, New York.
  • 8. Hamann, O. (2001) Demographic studies of three indigenous stand-forming plant taxa (Scalesia, Opuntia¸and Bursera) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Biodiversity and Conservation, 10: 223 - 250.
  • 9. Charles Darwin Foundation. (2006) Charles Darwin Research Station Fact Sheet: Opuntia cactus. Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands (AISBL), Galapagos, Ecuador. Available at External link.


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