Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Dugesia is a genus of Dugesiidae freshwater flatworms that includes around 75 species, all of them with a similar external appearance: triangle-shaped head with two eyes, and an elongated body. The different species are classified on the basis of the morphology of their copulatory apparatus.

They inhabit and are quite common in the freshwater bodies of Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Australia.

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Distribution

Klein-Jukskeirivier, Transvaal, South Africa
Collection date: Jul 20, 1973
Kind: default type
Comments: A small stream called the "Klein Jukskei" is situated between Johannesburg and Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa. Altitude about 1800 m.
  • Kawakatsu M, Ogawara G. 1974.   . Additional report on freshwater planarians from North Borneo, Malaya, Sri Lanka, India, and South Africa. Bull. Fuji Women's Coll. 12:69.
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Impala Park, 5 km east of Jan Smuts Airport, near Johannesburg, South Africa
Collection date: May 12, 1971
Kind: default type
Comments: Impala Park, suburb 5 km east of Johannesburg. Stream in Klip River near Johannesburg, Transvaal Altitude, about 1800 m.
  • Kawakatsu M. 1972.   . Report on freshwater planarians from South Africa. Bull. Fuji Women's Coll. 10:57.
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Saidpur (Said Pur), Pakistan
Collection date: May 15, 1964
Kind: default type
Comments: Collected by Dr. S. Rashid Ali and his co-workers. A spring water at Said Pur (about 16 km north of Rawalpindi. Seventeen specimens in a sexually immature state. Altitude, about 530 m.
  • Kawakatsu M. 1973.   . Report on freshwater planarians from Pakistan. Bull. Fuji Women's Coll. 11:79.
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Rustenburgkloof, South Africa
Collection date: Apr 11-12, 1971
Kind: default type
Comments: Stream in Rustenberg Kloof, near Rustenburg, Transvaal Altitude, about 1500 m.
  • Kawakatsu M. 1972.   . Report on freshwater planarians from South Africa. Bull. Fuji Women's Coll. 10:57.
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Universiti Sains Malaysia (University of Science), Malaysia
Collection date: 1970
Kind: default type
Comments: An artificial pond located in the Campus of the University of Sains Malaysia (Universiti Pulau Pinang), Penang, Malaysia. Altitude 100 m.
  • Kawakatsu M, Ogawara G. 1974.   . Additional report on freshwater planarians from North Borneo, Malaya, Sri Lanka, India, and South Africa. Bull. Fuji Women's Coll. 12:69.
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Dharmpur near Chandīgarh (Chandigarh), India
Collection date: Jul 1974
Kind: default type
Comments: A hilly stream at Dharmpur near Chandigarh, Panjab district, North India. Altitude about 1475 m.
  • Kawakatsu M, Ogawara G. 1974.   . Additional report on freshwater planarians from North Borneo, Malaya, Sri Lanka, India, and South Africa. Bull. Fuji Women's Coll. 12:69.
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Alagerkovil Well, Alagerkovil (Alagerkoil, Alagar Kovil), Tamil Nadu, Madurai, India
Collection date: Jul 1969 - May1971
Kind: default type
Comments: Alt. 405 m. Numerous specimens, sexually immature (3 to 7 mm long).
  • Kawakatsu M, Basil JA. 1971.   . Records of the freshwater and land planarians from India. Bull. Fuji Women's Coll. 9(2): 41-50, plates 1-2.
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Daerah Cameron Highlands (Cameron Highlands), west-central part of the Malay Peninsula, Pahang, Malaysia
Collection date: May 14, 1972
Kind: default type
Comments: A small stream (Sungai Semai) of Cameron Highlands, west-central part of the Malay Peninsula. Altitude, about 1200 m.
  • Kawakatsu M, Ogawara G. 1974.   . Additional report on freshwater planarians from North Borneo, Malaya, Sri Lanka, India, and South Africa. Bull. Fuji Women's Coll. 12:69.
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Hangzhou (Hangchow), China
Collection date: 1944 or earlier
Kind: default type
Comments: (or Phagocata ? sp.) from a spring-fed stream at the Yu-Chüan Temple at Hangchow, Hsi-chiang Shêng. This species may be Dugesia japonica (cf. Kawakatsu & Lue 1984, p. 107.
  • Katô K. 1944.   . On some turbellarians from Hangchow (Report on the limnological survey of Central China, XVIII). Shanghai Shizen. Ken. Ihô, 14: 357-359. (In Japanese).
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Distributed throughout Africa, Europe, the Middle East, the Oriental Region, the Far East, and the Australasian region.

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 15 specimens in 3 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Dugesia species could be classified into three karyological groups according to the haploid chromosome sets: n=7, n=8, and n=9. The first group includes only three species: D. batuensis Ball, 1970; D. ryukyuensis Kawakatsu, 1976; and D. hepta Pala, Casu & Vacca, 1981. The second group is comprised by many species and the third by D. sicula Lepori, 1948; D. biblica Benazzi & Banchetti, 1973; D. aethiopica Stocchino, Manconi, Corso & Pala, 2002; D. maghrebiana Stocchino, Manconi, Corso, Sluys, Casu & Pala, 2009; D. afromontana Stocchino & Sluys, 2012; and D. arabica Harrath & Sluys, 2013.

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Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:307
Specimens with Sequences:59
Specimens with Barcodes:8
Species:35
Species With Barcodes:7
Public Records:50
Public Species:7
Public BINs:4
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Dugesia

For the plant, see Dugesia (plant).

Dugesia (pronounced, d(y)üˈjēzh(ē)ə) is a genus of dugesiid triclad that contains some common representatives of the class Turbellaria. These common flatworms are found in freshwater habitats of Africa, Europe, Middle East, Asia and Australia. Dugesia is best known to non-specialists because of its regeneration capacities.[2]

Dugesia is the type genus of the family Dugesiidae.

Description[edit]

Dugesia species have an elongated body with a slightly triangle-shaped head. Usually they have grey, brown or black colors on the dorsal body surface, the ventral surface uses to be paler. These animals have a couple of eyes constituted by a multicellular pigmented cup with many retinal cells to detect the amount of light in the nearby environment. Sometimes they present supernumerary eyes. At the anterior part of the body, behind the eyes level, they have two of structures called [[Planarian#Nervous_system}|auricles]] that give the triangle look to the 'head' and that allow them to detect the intensity of water current. These auricles are free of pigment and rhabdites. Each side of the anterior margin of the head have between 5 and 10 shallow sensory fossae, their number depends on the species or the individual. The sensory fossae and the auricle grooves are supplied with many nerve endings.[3]

Dugesia digestion tract consists of a central non-pigmented tubular pharynx. Like the other triclads Dugesia gut consists in three ramified branches. Each branch consists of ceca, which delivers the nutrients to the body. This worm has a sac digestive plan, that is, it does not have a separate opening for waste excretion.[4]

Subepidermal musculature is divided in four layers.[3]

In Dugesia the ovaries are ventrally situated, they start just behind the brain, usually at the level of the forth intestinal branch. The bursal canal runs on the right side of the copulatory apparatus and above the atrium.[3] Like some Neppia species, Dugesia have a third layer of longitudinal musculature over the vaginal area of the bursal canal. This feature is not present in other triclads. Another feature shared with Neppia is the presence of a glandular area at the transicional area between the seminal vesicle and the ejaculatory duct, although in Dugesia these glands are concentrated at the diaphragm, a structure not present in any other genera.[5] Ball proposed that the presence of this glands was a synapomorphy of Dugesia and Neppia. The absence of these glands in some Neppia species (N. jeanneli, N. montana and N. schubarti) is thought to be a secondary loss.[6]

Reproduction[edit]

They are hermaphrodites. Many species can reproduce both sexually and asexually (by parthenogenesis or by fission).[7]

Phylogeny and taxonomy[edit]

Dugesia species have not enough morphological characters to find out which are the relationships between them. Furthermore, those available use to contradict each other. Dugesia species are identified by the combination of diagnostic characters instead of different apomorphies. Over 70 species within Dugesia genus have been described.[2]

Doubtful species[edit]

Some Dugesia species were described on the basis of the external features but poor, inconclusive or none morphological analysis of the copulatory apparatus was done:[citation needed]

Phylogeny[edit]

Dugesia cretica under a stone of a Cretan stream.

Phylogenetic tree including five dugesiid genera after Álvarez-Presas et al., 2008:[8]

Dugesiidae

Girardia




Neppia




Cura




Schmidtea



Dugesia






Molecular phylogeny of 13 Dugesia species after Lázaro et al., 2009:[9]

 Dugesia 


 D. sicula



 D. aethiopica







 D. japonica




 D. ryukyuensis




 D. notogaea



 D. bengalensis








 D. subtentaculata




 D. gonocephala




 D. liguriensis




 D. etrusca



 D. ilvana







 D. benazzii



 D. hepta







Molecular phylogeny of Dugesia species after Solà et al., 2013:[10]



D. aethiopica



D. sicula







D. etrusca



D. ilvana





D. gonocephala




D. benazzii



D. hepta







D. cretica






D. elegans




D. damoae



D. effusa






D. improvisa



D. ariadnae






D. arcadia




D. malickyi




D. aenigma




D. sagitta



D. parasagitta









References[edit]

  1. ^ Girard (1851). Essay on the classification of Nemertes and Planariae, preceded by some general considerations on the primary divisions of the animal kingdom. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 4th Mtg, New Haven, Conn., Aug 1850, pages 258-273. Washington 1851.
  2. ^ a b c Sluys, R.; Kawakatsu, M.; Winsor, L. (1998). "The genus Dugesia in Australia, with its phylogenetic analysis and historical biogeography (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae)". Zoologica Scripta 27 (4): 273. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.1998.tb00461.x.  edit
  3. ^ a b c Vries, E. J. (1988). "A synopsis of the nominal species of the subgenus Dugesia (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Paludicola) from Africa and Madagascar". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 92 (4): 345–382. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1988.tb01729.x.  edit
  4. ^ Gilbertson L. (1999). Zoology Lab Manual. McGraw Hill Companies, New York; ISBN 0-07-237716-X (fourth edition, 1999).
  5. ^ Ball. I. R. (1974). A contribution to the phylogeny and biogeography of the freshwater triclads (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria). In Biology of the Turbellaria: 339-401. Riser, N. W. & Morse, M. P. (Eds). New York:McGraw-Hill.
  6. ^ De Vries, E. J.; Sluys, R. (1991). "Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Dugesia (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Paludicola)". Journal of Zoology 223 (1): 103–116. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1991.tb04752.x.  edit
  7. ^ Lentati, G. B. (1966). "Amphimixis and pseudogamy in fresh-water triclads: Experimental reconstitution of polyploid pseudogamic biotypes". Chromosoma 20: 1–1. doi:10.1007/BF00331894.  edit
  8. ^ Álvarez-Presas, M.; Baguñà, J.; Riutort, M. (2008). "Molecular phylogeny of land and freshwater planarians (Tricladida, Platyhelminthes): From freshwater to land and back". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47 (2): 555–568. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.01.032. PMID 18359250.  edit
  9. ^ Lázaro, E. M.; Sluys, R.; Pala, M.; Stocchino, G. A.; Baguñà, J.; Riutort, M. (2009). "Molecular barcoding and phylogeography of sexual and asexual freshwater planarians of the genus Dugesia in the Western Mediterranean (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52 (3): 835–845. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.04.022. PMID 19435604.  edit
  10. ^ Solà, E.; Sluys, R.; Gritzalis, K.; Riutort, M. (2012). "Fluvial basin history in the northeastern Mediterranean region underlies dispersal and speciation patterns in the genus Dugesia (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.11.010.  edit
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