Biology/Natural History: This species concentrates vanadium in its body tissues (500-750 ppm by dry weight, excluding the tunic). These are some of the highest levels of vanadium concentration seen in tunicates. Diet includes crustacean nauplii, mollusc veligers, and eggs. Predators include the seastars Dermasterias imbricata and Orthasterias koehleri, and the predatory Oregon triton snail Fusitriton oregonesis . Sometimes contains the symbiotic crab Pinnotheres pugettensis or the several species of copepods. Gametes are ripe year-round, but mainly in the summer. Fertilization is external. Settle 6 hours to 5 days after hatching.