Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This species is a compound, colonial ascidian, with small, individual zooids embedded in a common matrix or tunic. The colony can grow extensively, forming soft, gelatinous sheets that measure 1-3 mm in thickness and up to several centimeters across. Individual zooids are very small, approximately 1-2 mm. The tunic lacks calcareous spicules, but often possesses white pigment flecks. Often translucent and either colorless or with a gray, light green, or tan hue.

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Description

 Diplosoma listerianum is a colonial ascidian forming thin (0.2 cm), flat, soft gelatinous sheets. They are translucent with scattered brown or grey pigmented cells. The individual animals (zooids) are 0.2 cm long and grouped around a common large exhalent opening (cloaca or atriopore). The cloacal openings are slightly raised, not always visible from above. Each zooid has four rows of stigmata filter feeding apertures, which are often almost completely exposed due to the wide atrial opening.This colonial ascidian is subject to predation by Trivia monacha the spotted cowrie, and the sea slug Gonoidoris nodosa. Similar species to Diplosoma listerianum are: Diplosoma spongiforme and Lissordinum perforatum.
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Description

This ascidian forms transparent gelatinous colonies on algae. The small zooids are scattered densely throughout the sheet. Each zooid has a small inhalant pore and there are a few larger exhalant openings, but these openings are not conspicuously pigmented. There is a pattern of small yellow pigment bodies in the surface layer which can be seen on close inspection. 4mm thick x 50mm wide sheets. Diplosoma spongiforme has been much mistaken for this species in the past. It forms much larger, more heavily pigmented, sheets on hard substrata. Diplosoma singulare forms similar smaller transparent colonies on seaweeds but has not been reported yet from the British Isles.
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Distribution

Apparently widely distributed
  • Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.) (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.
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semi-cosmopolitan
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Diplosoma listerianum has been recorded in the Northeast Pacific from British Columbia to California. This species also has been collected from numerous locations around the world, including the east coasts of North and South America, northern Europe and Great Britain, South Africa, Japan, New Zealand, and Hawaii. Its native geographical range remains unknown, and is considered cryptogenic.

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Widespread around the British Isles.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Identification

In Britain often wrongly used for D. singulare and D. spongiforme
  • Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.) (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.
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Look Alikes

In the Northeast Pacific, Diplosoma listerianum is most similar to other soft or gelatinous, encrusting colonial tunicates, including species of Didemnum and Eudistoma.

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 453 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 88 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 65
  Temperature range (°C): 1.708 - 27.693
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.113 - 6.725
  Salinity (PPS): 31.893 - 36.325
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.135 - 8.585
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 1.169
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.667 - 20.160

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 65

Temperature range (°C): 1.708 - 27.693

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.113 - 6.725

Salinity (PPS): 31.893 - 36.325

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.135 - 8.585

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 1.169

Silicate (umol/l): 0.667 - 20.160
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 This species can be found growing on algae fronds, seagrasses (Zostera leaves) and hard substrata. It is often observed on marina pontoons. Mainly sublittoral and may also reach depths of 80 m.
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A common ascidian in a wide variety of habitats in shallow water.
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Migration

Alien species

De grijze korstzakpijp Diplosoma listerianum is een soort waarvan het oorsprongsgebied onbekend is: een cryptogene soort. Ook in Europa komt de soort wijdverspreid voor in Groot-Brittannië, de westkust van Europa en aan de kusten van de Middellandse Zee. In België wordt de soort sinds 12 september 2002 regelmatig aangetroffen op pontons in de jachthaven van Zeebrugge. De kolonies hebben een doorzichtig en gelatineus uiterlijk, met een doorsnede tot 15 centimeter. Je kunt de grijze korstzakpijp terug vinden vanaf de laagwaterlijn tot ongeveer 80 meter diep.
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Alien species

Diplosoma listerianum is a cryptogenic species as its origins are unknown. In Europe the species is widely distributed in Great-Britain, the west coast of Europe, and on the coasts along the Mediterranean Sea. In Belgium, since 12 September 2002, the species is often found on pontoons in the harbour of Zeebrugge. The colonies appear to be transparent and gelatinous, with a diameter up to 15 cm. This ascidian can be found from the low-tide mark until about 80 m deep.
  • VLIZ Alien Species Consortium
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Diplosoma listerianum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diplosoma listerianum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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