[[ Family Doradidae ]]
Doradidae is a monophyletic catfish family easily recognized by the well-developed nuchal shield preceding the dorsal fin, and the lateral line with well-developed ossifications as midlateral scutes with median retrorse thorns. In one of his last papers, Carl H. Eigenmann (1925) presented a revision of the family, wherein he classified all known species into 26 valid genera and provided descriptions of various anatomical features of the family. Subsequent work on the family included relatively isolated descriptions of new genera and species, and a revision of doradid species from Venezuela by Fernández-Yépez (1968). Higuchi (1992) completed a comprehensive morphological study of Doradidae that helped resolve many taxonomic problems and placed the genera in a phylogenetic context. The results of Higuchi’s cladistic analysis of intergeneric relationships, including the synapomorphies for his proposed clades, are reproduced in de Pinna (1998). Most recently, Sabaj and Ferraris (2003) further refined the taxonomy of Doradidae by compiling a checklist of all nominal species (127) and genera (41) of doradids from which they recognized 72 species and 30 genera as valid. Five species were subsequently added by Sousa and Rapp Py-Daniel (2005), and Sabaj (2005).
- Horácio Higuchi, José L. O. Birindelli, Leandro M. Sousa, Heraldo A. Britski (2007): Merodoras nheco, new genus and species from Rio Paraguay basin, Brazil (Siluriformes, Doradidae), and nomination of the new subfamily Astrodoradinae. Zootaxa 1446, 31-42: 32-32, URL:http://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AC82821F-1400-4DA7-AD0E-41D7A2B37BE6
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:122
Specimens with Barcodes:115
Species With Barcodes:18
As of 2007, 31 genera and 78 species are in this family. Wertheimeria is considered to be the sister taxon to all other doradids. This family is monophyletic and contains the subfamilies Platydoradinae, Doradinae, and Astrodoradinae, though their relationships are mostly unresolved. The Astrodoradinae contain the genera Amblydoras, Anadoras, Astrodoras, Hypodoras, Merodoras, Physopyxis, and Scorpiodoras.
Doradids occur in most South American basins, though they are absent from the Pacific Coast drainages and from coastal drainages south of the Río de la Plata. About 70% of the valid species occur in the Amazon basin; the Orinoco basin harbors about 22 species and ranks second in species richness. Conversely, only two species of doradids have been described from Brazilian eastern coastal basins: Wertheimeria maculata from the Jequitinhonha and Pardo rivers and Kalyptodoras bahiensis from the Paraguaçu River.
Appearance and anatomy
Doradids are easily recognized by a well-developed nuchal shield in front of the dorsal fin, as well as well-developed bony lumps along the lateral line that form thorny scutes. Also, doradids typically have three pairs of barbels (no nasal barbels), an adipose fin, and four to six rays on the dorsal fin with a spine on the anterior (first) ray. These fish are sometimes called "talking catfish" because of their ability to produce sound by moving their pectoral spine or vibrating their swim bladder. Sizes range from 3.5 cm (1.4 in) SL in Physopyxis lyra to 120 cm (47 in) FL and 20 kg (44 lb) in Oxydoras niger.
- Higuchi, Horácio; Birindelli, José L. O.; Sousa, Leandro M.; Britski, Heraldo A. (2007). "Merodoras nheco, new genus and species from Rio Paraguay basin, Brazil (Siluriformes, Doradidae), and nomination of the new subfamily Astrodoradinae" (PDF). Zootaxa 1446: 31–42. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- Birindelli, J.L.O. & Sabaj Pérez, M. (2011): Ossancora, new genus of thorny catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Doradidae) with description of one new species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 161: 117-152.
- Birindelli, J.L.O. (2014): Phylogenetic relationships of the South American Doradoidea (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes). Neotropical Ichthyology 12(3): 451-564.
- Ferraris, Carl J., Jr. (2007). "Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary types" (PDF). Zootaxa 1418: 1–628. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- Milhomem, Susana Suely Rodrigues; de Souza, Augusto Cesar Paes; Nascimento, Aline Lira do; Carvalho, Jaime Ribeiro, Jr.; Feldberg, Eliana; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko (2008). "Cytogenetic studies in fishes of the genera Hassar, Platydoras and Opsodoras (Doradidae, Siluriformes) from Jarí and Xingu Rivers, Brazil". Genetics and Molecular Biology 31: 256–260. doi:10.1590/S1415-47572008000200017.
- Eler, Eduardo S.; Dergam, Jorge A.; Vênere, Paulo C.; Paiva, Lílian C.; Miranda, Gabriela A.; Oliveira, Alessandro A. (2007). "The karyotypes of the thorny catfishes Wertheimeria maculata Steindachner, 1877 and Hassar wilderi Kindle, 1895 (Siluriformes: Doradidae) and their relevance in doradids chromosomal evolution" (PDF). Genetica 130 (1): 99–103. doi:10.1007/s10709-006-0023-4. PMID 16897457. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- Moyer, Gregory R.; Burr, Brooks M.; Krajewski, Carey (2004). "Phylogenetic relationships of thorny catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae) inferred from molecular and morphological data". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140 (4): 551–575. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2004.00114.x.
- Nelson, Joseph S. (2006). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.
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