Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Phosphorescent
  • Leloup, E. (1952). Coelentérés [Coelenterata]. ---. Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique: Brussels, Belgium. 283 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Beroe cucumis is a medium-sized, sack-shaped comb jelly. It may reach up to 15 cm in length. It is completely transparent in colour. It swims with eight longitudinal combs that give the comb jellies (ctenophores) their characteristic shimmering appearance. These combs consist of plates of transverse rows of hairs that beat in waves downwards, which produces the shimmering effect. These plates are phosphorescent at night.Beroe cucumis is carnivorous and feeds on other comb jellies, particularly Bolinopsis infundibulum. Instead of sticky tentacles or large oral lobes, the large mouth is used to engulf prey whole (Greve, 1975).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Pan-oceanic species

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Ershova, Elizaveta

Source: iArcZoo

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Body elongate, sac-like, somewhat flattened, about 2 times longer than wide. Mouth opening is large, occupies the entire oral end of the animal. The opposite (aboral) end of the body carries the aboral organ with a mineral statolith inside. The aboral organ is surrounded by polar fields, the outer edges of which carry branching outgrowths. From the aboral organ originate 8 ciliary grooves, which reach the first combs of 8 meridional rows of combs. The combs are formed by fused cilia and serve for locomotion. Tentacles are absent. The mouth leads into a throat (stomodaeum), which leads to a funnel (infundibulum), and then into the meriodional canals, which can branch numerous times. The funnel also gives origin to 2 paragastric canals, which extend along the length of the throat almost to the mouth opening. Gonads (ovaries and seminal glands) are located along the meridional canals. Usually clear, some specimens are red in color. Feed on other ctenophores. Comb rows of juvenile stages are much shorter than of adults.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Ershova, Elizaveta

Source: iArcZoo

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Size up to 160 mm.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Ershova, Elizaveta

Source: iArcZoo

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Can be distinguished from co-occuring species B. abyssicola by:
- more watery body substance (B. abyssicula is more solid)
- by the color of the stomodeum, which is never brightly colored in B. cucumis
-lack of diverticulae in the paragastric canals

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Ershova, Elizaveta

Source: iArcZoo

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 213 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 154 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 1005
  Temperature range (°C): -1.810 - 13.634
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.007 - 43.616
  Salinity (PPS): 20.476 - 35.822
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.303 - 9.056
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 3.251
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.068 - 94.255

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 1005

Temperature range (°C): -1.810 - 13.634

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.007 - 43.616

Salinity (PPS): 20.476 - 35.822

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.303 - 9.056

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.055 - 3.251

Silicate (umol/l): 2.068 - 94.255
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2079 - 2601
  Temperature range (°C): 2.860 - 3.382
  Nitrate (umol/L): 17.575 - 17.908
  Salinity (PPS): 34.942 - 34.964
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.170 - 6.211
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.194 - 1.198
  Silicate (umol/l): 15.484 - 18.693

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 2079 - 2601

Temperature range (°C): 2.860 - 3.382

Nitrate (umol/L): 17.575 - 17.908

Salinity (PPS): 34.942 - 34.964

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.170 - 6.211

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.194 - 1.198

Silicate (umol/l): 15.484 - 18.693
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

 The comb jelly Beroe cucumis is a pelagic species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Feeds on the ctenophore Bolinopsis infundibulum. Can survive long periods of starvation.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Ershova, Elizaveta

Source: iArcZoo

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

Swims with the oral end facing forward; but is also capable of swimming backwards. The mouth opening is closed while swimming. When catching pray, the mouth becomes round and opens wide. The body contracts sharply and the prey (often as large or larger than the animal) is sucked into the stomodeum.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Ershova, Elizaveta

Source: iArcZoo

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Moving cilia create iridescence: comb jellies
 

Locomotory cilia on the comb rows of the comb jelly Beroë cucumis produce colors by reflecting white light using two-dimensional photonic crystals.

     
  "Ctenophores, comb-jellies or comb-jellyfishes, are common names for marine animals of the phylum Ctenophora. All parts of their deformable body, including muscles, are transparent. The refractive index of their tissues matches nearly exactly that of the salted water in which they live, consequently they are difficult to perceive, except under intense illumination, when the irregularities of their outer membrane produce some faint light scattering. The species Beroë cucumis has the form of oblong ellipsoids (a “cucumber” shape) with a mouth aperture in the forward swimming direction. Eight rows of locomotory cilia run along the body of the animal...These organs are usually much more easily visible than the rest of the body surface, due to the stronger light scattering which takes place on these protrusions. Moreover, the “comb”-rows appear to be brightly colored, showing an iridescence that rainbows across the whole visible spectrum as the combs beat for locomotion. As the rest of the paper will make clear, this is not related to any bioluminescence but can be understood as selective reflection from a two-dimensional photonic-crystal." (Welch et al. 2006:041916-1)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Welch V; Vigneron JP; Lousse V; Parker A. 2006. Optical properties of the iridescent organ of the comb-jellyfish Beroë cucumis (Ctenophora). Physical Review E. 73(4): 0419161-041916-7.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© The Biomimicry Institute

Source: AskNature

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!