Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This native perennial is up to 4' tall while in flower. The long slender stems are slightly ridged. The basal leaves occur toward the bottom of these stems and are irregularly shaped – the larger leaves are pinnately divided into 3-7 lobes, sometimes subdividing further into 1-2 secondary lobes. The margins of these leaves are smooth, or sparsely dentate; they are individually up to 8" long and 5" across. The smaller leaves higher up on the stems are usually lanceolate; they are few in number. The texture of these leaves is rough as a result of tiny stiff hairs and bumps. The daisy-like composite flowers occur at the apex of the tall stems. Each composite flower has up to 13 drooping yellow ray florets spanning 1-2½" across, and an oblong head of disk florets that is about ½–¾" tall when mature. This head is initially light green or grey, but later becomes dark brown. The blooming period occurs from early to late summer, and lasts about 1-2 months. There is little or no floral scent – although the seedheads release an anise scent when they are crushed. The root system is rhizomatous, often forming tight clumps of plants. The dark achenes are without tufts of hair.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments

Yellow Coneflower is an excellent choice for a wildflower garden because of its long blooming period and attractive yellow flowers. The entire plant is delicately constructed, and has a tendency to sway or flutter with each passing breeze. This species can be distinguished from other yellow coneflowers, such as Rudbeckia hirta, by its drooping ray florets and the complex structure of the basal leaves. Return
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

General: Sunflower family (Asteraceae). Yellow coneflower is a native perennial herb growing from a woody caudex up to one meter or taller. The leaves are pinnantely compound, mostly with five to seven lanceolate segments, with harsh and scurfy surfaces (Bruggen 1976). The disk flowers are usually gray at first becoming brown with age. When the disk heads are crushed, an odor of anise is emitted. Each flower has its own stalk and five to eight yellow, drooping petals arranged in a cone shape.

Distribution: Yellow coneflower ranges from Ontario and New York to Minnesota, South Dakota, and Nebraska, south to Georgia, Arkansas and Oklahoma (Steyermark 1963). For current distribution, please consult the Plant profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Alternative names

gray-head prairie coneflower, drooping coneflower, pinnate prairie coneflower

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Yellow Coneflower is fairly common in Illinois, except in some SE counties (see Distribution Map). Habitats include moist to slightly dry black soil prairies, clay prairies, thickets, woodland borders, limestone glades, and areas along railroads, particularly where remnant prairies occur. Yellow Coneflower tends to colonize the more disturbed areas of these habitats. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Ratibida pinnata (Vent.) Barnhart:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Adaptation

This species occurs in prairies, thickets, and borders of woods. It is often found along roadsides and railroad right-of-ways. Yellow coneflower grows best on loam, clay, and sandy soil types that are from medium moisture to dry. It prefers calcareous soils that are neutral pH 6-7, but will grow in sunny locations with well-drained soils, and is often found in wet mesic, mesic and dry mesic sites.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennials, to 125+ cm; fibrous rooted (arising from stout rhizomes or woody caudices). Leaves 5–40 × 3–15+ cm, pinnatifid to pinnate, lobes 3–9, narrowly lanceolate to ovate, 1–15 × 0.2–3.5 cm, faces strigose, gland-dotted. Heads mostly 1–12, held well beyond leaves. Peduncles 3–27+ cm (ribs tan, prominent). Phyllaries 10–15, outer linear, 3–15 × 1–3 mm, inner lanceolate-ovate, 3–6 × 0.7–3 mm. Paleae 1.2–5 × 1–1.8 mm, resin glands linear to oblanceolate, 2–3.3 mm. Ray florets 6–15; corollas yellow, 2.5–3.8 mm, tubes ca. 1–3 mm, hirsute, laminae linear-elliptic to oblong-oblanceolate, 16–60 × 4–15 mm. Discs ellipsoid to globular or ovoid, 10–25 × 10–18 mm. Disc florets 100–200+; corollas greenish yellow, often purplish distally, 2.5–3.8 mm; style branches ca. 1.8 mm, proximal 1/2 stigmatic, apices subulate. Cypselae linear-oblanceoloid, 2–4 × 1–2.3 mm, margins usually glabrous, sometimes adaxial ciliate; pappi 0 or of 1–2 toothlike projections. 2n = 28.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Rudbeckia pinnata Ventenat, Descr. Pl. Nouv., plate 71. 1802
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Yellow Coneflower is fairly common in Illinois, except in some SE counties (see Distribution Map). Habitats include moist to slightly dry black soil prairies, clay prairies, thickets, woodland borders, limestone glades, and areas along railroads, particularly where remnant prairies occur. Yellow Coneflower tends to colonize the more disturbed areas of these habitats. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Dispersal

Establishment

Propagation by Seed: Ratibida pinnata seeds are best planted in the spring or fall. Generally the seeds does not need any pre-treatment. They can be stratified at 33 to 38ºF for thirty days.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Yellow Coneflower in Illinois

Ratibida pinnata (Yellow Coneflower)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar; flies feed on pollen or suck nectar; beetles feed on pollen; other insects suck nectar; some observations are from Graenicher, Moure & Hurd, Reed, and MacRae as indicated below, otherwise they are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp (Gr); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomus (Re), Bombus centralis sn (Gr), Bombus fraternus sn, Bombus griseocallis sn cp (Gr, Re), Bombus ternarius sn cp (Gr), Bombus vagans sn cp (Gr); Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Epeolus bifasciatus sn fq, Triepeolus sp. sn (Re), Triepeolus concavus sn fq, Triepeolus cressonii cressonii sn fq, Triepeolus lunatus concolor sn fq, Triepeolus lunatus lunatus sn fq, Triepeolus remigatus sn fq; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn cp fq (Rb, Gr), Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn fq, Melissodes boltoniae sn, Melissodes comptoides sn, Melissodes denticulata sn, Melissodes nivea sn, Melissodes rustica sn fq (Rb, Re), Melissodes subillata (Re), Melissodes trinodis sn cp (Rb, Gr), Svastra obliqua obliqua sn cp fq (Rb, Gr, Re), Svastra petulca petulca sn cp; Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica sn (Gr); Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys alternata alternata sn, Coelioxys modesta sn, Coelioxys octodentata sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn fq (Rb, Re), Megachile centuncularis sn cp (Gr), Megachile inimica sayi sn fq, Megachile latimanus sn cp (Rb, Gr, Re), Megachile mendica sn cp (Rb, Gr), Megachile parallela parallela sn cp fq, Megachile pugnatus sn; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn (Rb, Gr), Agapostemon texanus texanus sn cp, Agapostemon virescens (Re), Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn, Augochlorella striata (Re), Halictus confusus sn cp (Gr, Re), Halictus ligatus sn cp fq (Rb, Gr, Re), Halictus rubicunda sn cp, Lasioglossum albipennis sn cp (Rb, Re), Lasioglossum connexus sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum forbesii sn, Lasioglossum perpunctatus (Re), Lasioglossum pilosus (Re), Lasioglossum pruinosus sn, Lasioglossum rowheri (Re), Lasioglossum versatus sn cp; Halictidae (Nomiinae): Nomia nortoni nortoni (MH); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena chromotricha sn cp (Gr), Andrena rudbeckiae sn cp olg (Rb, Re); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Heterosarus albitarsis sn, Heterosarus nebrascensis (Re)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bembix americana (Rb, Gr, Re), Bembix belfragei (Re), Bembix nubilipennis fq, Bembix sayi (Re), Bicyrtes ventralis (Rb, Gr, Re) fq, Glenostictia pictifrons fq; Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Anacrabro ocellatus, Entomognathus texanus; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris sp. (Re), Philanthus ventilabris (Re); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila nigricans, Ammophila pictipennis, Prionyx atrata, Prionyx thomae; Vespidae: Polistes fuscata; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Euodynerus annulatus, Pterocheilus quinquefasciatus, Stenodynerus ammonia, Stenodynerus anormis, Stenodynerus fundatiformis

Flies
Empidae: Empis clausa sn; Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa decora sn, Paravilla sp. (Re), Phthiria sp. (Re), Poecilanthrax sp. (Re), Sparnopolius confusus sn, Systoechus vulgaris sn; Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua (Re), Eristalis tenax (Gr), Eristalis transversus (Gr, Re), Sphaerophoria contiqua (Re), Syritta pipiens (Gr), Syrphus sp. (Re), Toxomerus geminatus (Gr), Toxomerus marginatus (Gr, Re); Conopidae: Zodion sp. (Re), Zodion fulvifrons (Gr), Zodion obliquefasciatum sn fq icp; Stratiomyidae: Hedriodiscus binotata fp (Gr); Tachinidae: Gymnoclytia occidua sn; Muscidae: Musca autumnalis (Re); Milichiidae: Eusiphona mira sn fp (Rb, Gr)

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Limenitis archippus (Gr), Phyciodes tharos; Pieridae: Colias philodice (Gr); Lycaenidae: Everes comyntas, Strymon melinus

Moths
Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis (Re); Noctuidae: Tarachidia candefacta (Gr)

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodora pulchella fp fq (Rb, McR); Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus fp (Gr, Re); Cerambycidae: Typocerus sinuatus fp np

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Adelphocoris rapidus (Gr), Lygus lineolaris (Gr)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ratibida pinnata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Please consult the Plants Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Somewhat available through native plant seed sources within its range. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Harvesting of seeds should be done from October through November. The cones should be clipped form the stem and placed into a bucket to rub the seeds off the cone to be used for propagation.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun, mesic conditions, and a loam or clay-loam soil. However, this is a robust plant that will tolerate partial sun, moist to slightly dry conditions, and many kinds of soil. Foliar disease doesn't affect the leaves until after the blooming period. There is a tendency for the flowering stems to flop around if this plant is spoiled by too much water or fertile soil. This plant is easy to grow.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

Ethnobotanic: Ratibida pinnata root was used to cure toothache (Fielder 1975).

Landscaping &Wildlife: Yellow coneflower is a strong survivor of former prairies where the majority of the original plants have perished. This is a long live species and is best to plant where there is competition from other plants. The seed heads are eaten by birds in the late fall. The flowers attract several different butterfly species.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Ratibida pinnata

Ratibida pinnata is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common names pinnate prairie coneflower, gray-head coneflower, yellow coneflower, and prairie coneflower. It is native to the central and eastern United States and Ontario in Canada.[1][2]

This species is a perennial herb which can well exceed one meter in height. It has fibrous roots and rhizomes or woody caudices. The rough-haired, glandular leaves are up to 40 centimeters long and are divided into several large lance-shaped or oval lobes. The inflorescences are tall, generally far above the highest leaves. Each flower head contains up to 15 yellow ray florets up to 6 centimeters long. The center of the flower is globular or oval in shape and measures up to 2.5 centimeters long. It is covered in up to 200 or more disc florets which are yellow-green to purplish in color.[1] The disc heads have a scent reminiscent of anise when crushed.[3][4]

This plant grows in prairies, on the margins of woods, and on roadsides. It can grow in moist or dry habitat. It is hardy and not easily outcompeted by other plants.[3]

This plant is grown as an ornamental garden plant.[4] It is attractive to butterflies and birds.[3] Cultivars include 'Sunglow'.[5]

References

  1. ^ a b Ratibida pinnata. Flora of North America.
  2. ^ Ratibida pinnata. NatureServe.
  3. ^ a b c Ratibida pinnata. USDA NRCS Plant Guide.
  4. ^ a b Ratibida pinnata. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  5. ^ Ratibida pinnata. USDA NRCS Plant Fact Sheet.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!