The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

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  • 11. Cottle, H. J. 1931. Studies in the vegetation of southwestern Texas. Ecology. 12(1): 105-155. [4556]
  • 12. Coupland, Robert T. 1958. The effects of fluctuations in weather upon the grasslands of the Great Plains. Botanical Review. 24(5): 273-317. [12502]
  • 13. Diamond, David D.; Fulbright, Timothy E. 1990. Contemporary plant communities of upland grasslands of the Coastal Sand Plain, Texas. Southwestern Naturalist. 35(4): 385-392. [14127]
  • 14. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 15. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819]
  • 16. Dyksterhuis, E. J. 1948. The vegetation of the western Cross Timbers. Ecological Monographs. 18(3): 326-376. [3683]
  • 17. Eddleman, Lee E.; Doescher, Paul S. 1978. Selection of native plants for spoils revegetation based on regeneration characteristics and successional status. In: Land Reclamation Program, Annual Report July 1976-October 1977. ANL/LRP-2. Argonne, IL: Argonne National Laboratory, Energy & Environmental Systems Division: 132-138. [5729]
  • 18. Eddleman, Lee E.; Meinhardt, Patricia L. 1981. Seed viability and seedling vigor in selected prairie plants. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The Prairie Peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 213-217. [3410]
  • 19. Englund, Judy Voigt; Meyer, William J. 1986. The impact of deer on 24 species of prairie forbs. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 210-212. [3575]
  • 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
  • 21. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 23. Gibson, David J. 1989. Hulbert's study of factors effecting botanical composition of tallgrass prairie. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 115-133. [14029]
  • 24. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 25. Goetz, Harold. 1963. Growth and development of native range plants in the mixed grass prairie of western North Dakota. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 141 p. Thesis. [5661]
  • 26. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 27. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 28. Hartnett, David C. 1991. Effects of fire in tallgrass prairie on growth and reproduction of prairie coneflower (Ratibida columnifera: Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany. 78(3): 429-435. [14117]
  • 29. Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Todd, T. C. 1992. Relationships of mycorrhizal symbiosis, rooting strategy, and phenology among tallgrass prairie forbs. Canadian Journal of Botany. 70: 1521-1528. [19783]
  • 3. Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1982. Perennial forbs for wildlife habitat restoration on mined lands in the northern Great Plains. In: Western proceedings, 62nd annual conference of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies; 1982 July 19-22; Las Vegas, Nevada. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 30. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 31. Holden, D. J.; Ellis, B. E.; Chen, C. H. 1978. Cloning native prairie plants by tissue culture. In: Glenn-Lewin, David C.; Landers, Roger Q., Jr., eds. Proceedings, 5th Midwest prairie conference; 1976 August 22-24; Ames, IA. Ames, IA: Iowa State University: 92-95. [3355]
  • 32. Jacobson, Erling T. 1975. The evaluation, selection and increase of prairie wildflowers for conservation beautification. In: Wali, Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press: 395-404. [4437]
  • 33. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. [18501]
  • 34. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954]
  • 35. Kruse, Arnold D.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1990. Effects of prescribed fire upon wildlife habitat in northern mixed-grass prairie. In: Alexander, M. E.; Bisgrove, G. F., technical coordinators. The art and science of fire management: Proceedings, 1st Interior West Fire Council annual meeting and workshop; 1988 October 24-27; Kananaskis Village, AB. Inf. Rep. NOR-X-309. Edmonton, AB: Forestry Canada, Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre: 182-193. [14146]
  • 37. Laudenslager, Scott L.; Flake, Lester D. 1987. Fall food habits of wild turkeys in south central South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 19(1): 37-40. [251]
  • 38. Lewis, James K.; Van Dyne, George M.; Albee, Leslie R.; Whetzal, Frank W. 1956. Intensity of grazing: Its effect on livestock and forage production. Bulletin 459. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 44 p. [11737]
  • 39. McGinnies, William J.; Shantz, Homer L.; McGinnies, William G. 1991. Changes in vegetation and land use in eastern Colorado: A photographic study, 1904-1986. ARS-85. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 165 p. [18826]
  • 4. Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1989. Promising native forbs for seeding on mine spoils. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council: 255-262. [14354]
  • 40. Pemble, R. H.; Van Amburg, G. L.; Mattson, Lyle. 1981. Intraspecific variation in flowering activity following a spring burn on a northwestern Minnesota prairie. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey: Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 235-240. [3435]
  • 42. Ries, R. E.; Hofmann, L. 1983. Number of seedlings established from stored prairie hay. In: Brewer, Richard, ed. Proceedings, 8th North American prairie conference; 1982 August 1-4; Kalamazoo, MI. Kalamazoo, MI: Western Michigan University, Department of Biology: 3-4. [3112]
  • 43. Rollins, Dale; Bryant, Fred C. 1986. Floral changes following mechanical brush removal in central Texas. Journal of Range Management. 39(3): 237-240. [10415]
  • 44. Schripsema, Janet R. 1978. Ecological changes on pine-grassland burned in spring, late spring and winter. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota State University. 99 p. Thesis. [2092]
  • 45. Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 1989. Catalog of wildflowers and forbs. Amarillo, TX: Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 20 p. [18001]
  • 46. Sorensen, J. T.; Holden, D. J. 1974. Germination of native prairie forb seeds. Journal of Range Management. 27(2): 123-126. [15617]
  • 48. Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 465 p. [2270]
  • 5. Box, Thadis W.; Powell, Jeff; Drawe, D. Lynn. 1967. Influence of fire on south Texas chaparral communities. Ecology. 48(6): 955-961. [499]
  • 50. Uresk, Daniel W.; Lowrey, Dennis G. 1984. Cattle diets in the central Black Hills of South Dakota. In: Noble, Daniel L.; Winokur, Robert P., eds. Wooded draws: characteristics and values for the Northern Great Plains: Symposium proceedings; 1984 June 12-13; Rapid City, SD. Great Plains Agricultural Council Pub. No. 111. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota School of Mines and Technology: 50-52. [2400]
  • 51. Vance, F. R.; Jowsey, J. R.; McLean, J. S. 1984. Wildflowers of the Northern Great Plains. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 336 p. [22199]
  • 52. Vora, Robin S. 1990. Plant phenology in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 42(2): 137-142. [11832]
  • 53. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]
  • 54. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. [7706]
  • 55. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 56. Wolfe, Carl W. 1973. Effects of fire on a sandhills grassland environment. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1972 June 8-9; Lubbock, TX. Number 12. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 241-255. [8469]
  • 57. Wright, Henry A.; Thompson, Rita. 1978. Fire effects. In: Fire management: Prairie plant communities: Proceedings of a symposium and workshop; 1978 April 25-28; Jamestown, ND. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 58. Gibson, David J. 1988. Regeneration and fluctuation of tallgrass prairie vegetation in response to burning frequency. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 115(1): 1-12. [4426]
  • 6. Box, Thadis W.; White, Richard S. 1969. Fall and winter burning of south Texas brush ranges. Journal of Range Management. 22(6): 373-376. [11438]
  • 7. Brand, M. D.; Goetz, H. 1978. Secondary succession of a mixed grass community in southwestern North Dakota. Annual Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science. 32(2): 67-78. [7512]
  • 8. Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64. [20450]
  • 9. Cohen, Will E.; Drawe, D. Lynn; Bryant, Fred C.; Bradley, Lisa C. 1989. Observations on white-tailed deer and habitat response to livestock grazing in south Texas. Journal of Range Management. 42(5): 361-365. [9323]
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  • Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 19: 706. 1915. (Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb.)
  • Cronquist, A.J. 1980. Asteraceae. 1: i–xv, 1–261. In Vasc. Fl. S.E. U. S. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Cronquist, A.J. 1994. Asterales. 5: 1–496. In A.J. Cronquist, A. H. Holmgren, N. H. Holmgren, J. L. Reveal & P. K. Holmgren (eds.) Intermount. Fl. Hafner Pub. Co., New York.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Flann C. (ed) (2013). GCC: Global Compositae Checklist (version 3 (Beta), Feb 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee, e. 2006. Magnoliophyta: Asteridae, part 8: Asteraceae, part 3. Fl. N. Amer. 21: i–xxii + 1–616.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Sympetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 3. 596 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication. flowervisitors.info, version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication. illinoiswildflowers.info, version (07/2014) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1984. Compositae. Part V.: 1–343. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • L. D. Harris and L. Paur, A quantitative food web analysis of a shortgrass community, Technical Report No. 154, Grassland Biome. U.S. International Biological Program (1972), from p. 17.
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1979. Dicotyledoneae (Loasaceae to Compositae). Part 4. 1117–1711 pp. In Fl. Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.
  • Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora, Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Inst. of Science, Ann Arbor.
  • Wunderlin, R. P. 1998. Guide Vasc. Pl. Florida i–x, 1–806. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

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