Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This adventive perennial wildflower is 1-3' tall, branching occasionally. The stems are medium green and minutely rough-pubescent to glabrous. The spreading alternate leaves are up to 6" long and 2" across; they are odd-pinnate or double odd-pinnate with 5-11 lobes, medium green, and minutely rough-pubescent to glabrous. The slender lobes are linear-oblong and sometimes have 1-2 dentate teeth or smaller cleft lobes; they are 1/3" across or less. Irregularities in the structure of the leaves are rather common. The petioles are up to 2" long. Occasionally, the upper stems terminate in individual flowerheads on long naked stalks (peduncles). These stalks are 2-12" long and finely grooved. The flowerheads are about 1½–3" long and a little less across. Each flowerhead consists of a cylindrical head of numerous disk florets, which is surrounded by 4-11 drooping rays (ray florets). A mature head of disk florets is ¾–1¾" long; it is initially gray or greenish gray, later becoming dark brown. The rays are about ½–1¼" long, oblong in shape, and slightly notched at their tips; they are either yellow, maroon (reddish brown), or yellow with basal patches of maroon. The typical form of Mexican Hat has yellow rays, while plants with maroon rays are referred to as f. pulcherrima. The bottom of each flowerhead is defined by 2 series of small narrow bracts; these are largely hidden by the drooping rays. The blooming period occurs during the summer and lasts about 1-2 months. Fertile disk florets are replaced by small oblongoid achenes; each achene usually has one or more tiny scales at its apex. This plant spreads to new areas by reseeding itself.
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Description

General: Composite Family (Asteraceae). Prairie coneflower is a native perennial about a foot and a half tall. The rays are generally three to five centimeters long, much longer than the disk (solid part between the rays). The floral disk is somewhat globe-shaped, ovoid, or shortly ellipsoid, twelve to twenty millimeters high (Steyermark 1963). Prairie coneflower has well-developed leaves up to fifteen centimeters long and six centimeters wide, pinnatifid to partly bipinnatifid, with ultimate segments linear to oblong, often very unequal (Great Plains Flora Association 1986). This species has one to several stems twelve to forty-seven inches tall. The fruit is a small ashen.

Distribution: Prairie coneflower ranges from Alberta to Mexico, east to Manitoba, Minnesota, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas; and New England (Steyermark 1963). For current distribution, please consult the Plant profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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Alternative names

Mexican hat, yellow Mexican hat, upright prairie coneflower, long-head coneflower, columnar prairie coneflower

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Mexican Hat is adventive from the the Great Plains and western states; the eastern boundary of its range extends into western Iowa and Missouri. In Illinois, naturalized populations of Mexican Hat are uncommon; they are found primarily in the northern and western sections of the state. Habitats include upland prairies, roadsides, areas along railroads, and barren waste areas. This wildflower is often cultivated in gardens, from which it sometimes escapes. In Illinois, Mexican Hat is found primarily in disturbed areas, where it may or may not persist.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Upright prairie coneflower is predominantly a Great Plains species which
extends from southeastern British Columbia [30] to Manitoba [21] and
Michigan [55], south through Illinois [21] to Louisiana, and west
through Texas and northern Mexico [24] to Arizona [27]. Naturalized
populations occur east of the Cascades [30] and in New England [2].
  • 2. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]
  • 24. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 21. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 27. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 30. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 55. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

7 Lower Basin and Range
8 Northern Rocky Mountains
9 Middle Rocky Mountains
10 Wyoming Basin
11 Southern Rocky Mountains
12 Colorado Plateau
13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont
14 Great Plains
15 Black Hills Uplift
16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands

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Occurrence in North America

AZ AR CO IL IA KS LA MI MN MO
MT NE NM ND OK SD TN TX UT WI
WY AB BC MB SK MEXICO

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Adaptation

Ratibida columnifera grows well on loam, sandy loam, and clayey loam soils. It prefers a sunny position and well-drained rich soil types. This species is tolerant of weakly acidic to moderately alkaline soils and weak saline soils. It has low to moderate water requirements. Prairie coneflower is found on dry plains, prairies, waste ground, and along roadsides and railroads.

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: achene, caudex, pappus, warm-season

Upright prairie coneflower is a native [21] warm-season [53] perennial
forb [1,27,30,51]. It has one to several stems 12 to 47 inches (0.3-1.2
m) tall [30], often branched in the upper part [24,55]. Leaves are up
to 6 inches (15 cm) long [26] and pinnately divided [21]. Flowerheads
are borne singly [48] at the ends of naked peduncles [1,26]. The floral
disk is columnar, 0.6 to 1.6 inches (1.5-4 cm) long [30], and about 0.4
inches (1 cm) across. The fruit is a small achene [26]; the pappus is
reduced to one or two prominent awn-teeth [1,30]. Upright prairie
coneflower has a caudex and a stout taproot [26,55] with branch roots
[53]. It is an obligate mycotroph [29].
  • 1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 24. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 26. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 21. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 27. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 29. Hetrick, B. A. D.; Wilson, G. W. T.; Todd, T. C. 1992. Relationships of mycorrhizal symbiosis, rooting strategy, and phenology among tallgrass prairie forbs. Canadian Journal of Botany. 70: 1521-1528. [19783]
  • 30. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 48. Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 465 p. [2270]
  • 51. Vance, F. R.; Jowsey, J. R.; McLean, J. S. 1984. Wildflowers of the Northern Great Plains. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 336 p. [22199]
  • 53. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]
  • 55. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]

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Description

Perennials, to 105+ cm; taprooted. Leaves 2–15+ × 0.8–6 cm, 1–2-pinnatifid, lobes 3–14, narrowly linear-lanceolate to narrowly oblong-ovate, 1–16 mm wide, faces hirsute, gland-dotted. Heads 1–15, held well beyond leaves. Peduncles (1.5–)6.5–48+ cm (ribs tan, prominent). Phyllaries 5–14, outer linear, 4–14 × 0.5–2 mm, inner lanceolate-ovate, 0.8–3 × 0.8–2 mm. Paleae 2.3–3.5 × 0.5–3 mm, resin glands oval-oblanceolate, 0.6–1.5 mm. Ray florets 4–12; corollas yellow, purplish yellow, or maroon, sometimes bicolor (maroon/yellow), laminae lanceolate-ovate to elliptic-oblanceolate, 7–35 × 4–17 mm. Discs columnar, 10–50 × 7–12 mm. Disc florets 200–400+; corollas greenish yellow, often purplish distally, 1–2.5 mm; style branches 0.5–1.4 mm, proximal 2/3–3/4 stigmatic, apices rounded. Cypselae oblong, 1.2–3 × 1.2–2 mm, abaxial margins glabrous, adaxial margins and apices glabrous or ciliate; pappi (tan) usually of 1–2 toothlike projections, sometimes 0. 2n = 28.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Rudbeckia columnifera Nuttall, Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana, no. 75. 1813; Ratibida columnaris (Sims) D. Don
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Mexican Hat is adventive from the the Great Plains and western states; the eastern boundary of its range extends into western Iowa and Missouri. In Illinois, naturalized populations of Mexican Hat are uncommon; they are found primarily in the northern and western sections of the state. Habitats include upland prairies, roadsides, areas along railroads, and barren waste areas. This wildflower is often cultivated in gardens, from which it sometimes escapes. In Illinois, Mexican Hat is found primarily in disturbed areas, where it may or may not persist.
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: cover, frequency

Upright prairie coneflower grows well on sandy loam, loam, and clayey
loam soils [14]. It can also be found growing on thin, rocky, gravelly
and sandy soils. It is tolerant of weakly acidic to moderately alkaline
soils and weakly saline soils [53]. Optimum soil depth for upright
prairie coneflower growth is 20 or more inches (51 cm) [14]. It has low
to moderate water requirements [13] and grows in full sun [45]. It is
found on dry plains, prairies [21], hillsides [15], and also roadsides,
railway grades and other "waste places" [51].

A field survey of minimally disturbed native grassland of the Coastal
Sand Plain of south Texas was conducted in May, 1987. Upright prairie
coneflower occurred in five of ten sites on dune ridges and well-drained
flats, with mean absolute frequency of 14 percent and relative cover of
3 percent. In swales and on moderately drained flats it occurred on
only one of five sites, with absolute frequency of 5 percent and trace
relative cover [13].

Upright prairie coneflower occurs at the following elevations:

Elevation (feet) Elevation (meters)

CO 3,500-7,000 1,067-2,134 [27]
MT 3,200-5,200 975-1,585 [14]
SD 3,600-5,000 1,097-1,524 [44]
UT 4,500-8,416 1,372-2,565 [14,55]
WY 3,700-8,000 1,128-2,434 [14]
  • 13. Diamond, David D.; Fulbright, Timothy E. 1990. Contemporary plant communities of upland grasslands of the Coastal Sand Plain, Texas. Southwestern Naturalist. 35(4): 385-392. [14127]
  • 14. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 15. Dorn, Robert D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 276 p. [819]
  • 21. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 27. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 44. Schripsema, Janet R. 1978. Ecological changes on pine-grassland burned in spring, late spring and winter. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota State University. 99 p. Thesis. [2092]
  • 45. Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 1989. Catalog of wildflowers and forbs. Amarillo, TX: Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 20 p. [18001]
  • 51. Vance, F. R.; Jowsey, J. R.; McLean, J. S. 1984. Wildflowers of the Northern Great Plains. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 336 p. [22199]
  • 53. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]
  • 55. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: shrub

K011 Western ponderosa forest
K016 Eastern ponderosa forest
K017 Black Hills pine forest
K018 Pine - Douglas-fir forest
K021 Southwestern spruce - fir forest
K023 Juniper - pinyon woodland
K037 Mountain-mahogany - oak scrub
K038 Great Basin sagebrush
K040 Saltbush - greasewood
K045 Ceniza shrub
K056 Wheatgrass - needlegrass shrubsteppe
K060 Mesquite savanna
K062 Mesquite - live oak savanna
K063 Foothills prairie
K064 Grama - needlegrass - wheatgrass
K065 Grama - buffalograss
K066 Wheatgrass - needlegrass
K067 Wheatgrass - bluestem - needlegrass
K070 Sandsage - bluestem prairie
K071 Shinnery
K074 Bluestem prairie
K077 Bluestem - sacahuista prairie
K081 Oak savanna
K084 Cross Timbers
K086 Juniper - oak savanna
K098 Northern floodplain forest

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

More info for the term: shrub

FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood
FRES21 Ponderosa pine
FRES23 Fir - spruce
FRES29 Sagebrush
FRES30 Desert shrub
FRES31 Shinnery
FRES32 Texas savanna
FRES34 Chaparral - mountain shrub
FRES35 Pinyon - juniper
FRES36 Mountain grasslands
FRES38 Plains grasslands
FRES39 Prairie

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Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

14 Northern pin oak
40 Post oak - blackjack oak
42 Bur oak
52 White oak - black oak - northern red oak
53 White oak
55 Northern red oak
62 Silver maple - American elm
66 Ashe juniper - redberry (Pinchot) juniper
67 Mohrs (shin) oak
68 Mesquite
206 Engelmann spruce - subalpine fir
220 Rocky Mountain juniper
237 Interior ponderosa pine
239 Pinyon - juniper
241 Western live oak
242 Mesquite

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Key Plant Community Associations

Upright prairie coneflower is widespread throughout the Great Plains.
It is not listed as an indicator species in available publications. It
occurs with a variety of associated species, depending on geographic
location and site conditions.

Lists of associated species are available for the following areas
outside the main range of upright prairie coneflower: the "hard lands"
of northeastern and east-central Colorado [39], the Edwards Plateau of
west-central Texas [43], the lower Rio Grande Valley of south Texas
[52], and the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas [13].
  • 13. Diamond, David D.; Fulbright, Timothy E. 1990. Contemporary plant communities of upland grasslands of the Coastal Sand Plain, Texas. Southwestern Naturalist. 35(4): 385-392. [14127]
  • 39. McGinnies, William J.; Shantz, Homer L.; McGinnies, William G. 1991. Changes in vegetation and land use in eastern Colorado: A photographic study, 1904-1986. ARS-85. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 165 p. [18826]
  • 43. Rollins, Dale; Bryant, Fred C. 1986. Floral changes following mechanical brush removal in central Texas. Journal of Range Management. 39(3): 237-240. [10415]
  • 52. Vora, Robin S. 1990. Plant phenology in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 42(2): 137-142. [11832]

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Dispersal

Establishment

Propagation by Seed: Ratibida columnifera seeds are best sown in early spring in a cold frame. Cover the seeds and place the pot in a sunny location. Optimum germination temperatures are between 68 to 86ºF, or 20 to 30ºC. Germination should be achieved in two days.

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Associations

Faunal Associations

Various insects are attracted to the nectar and pollen of the flowerheads. Floral visitors of Mexican Hat are probably similar to those insects that are known to visit the flowerheads of Ratibida pinnata (Yellow Coneflower). Likely visitors include various short-tongued bees, wasps, flies, beetles, and the occasional butterfly or skipper. The caterpillars of some moths are known to feed on Ratibida spp. (primarily the rays and florets). These species include Homoeosoma electellum (Sunflower Moth), Chlorochlamys chloroleuca (Blackberry Looper Moth), Eupithecia miserulata (Common Pug), Synchlora aerata (Wavy-Lined Emerald), and Epiblema iowana (Tortricid Moth sp.). The caterpillars of the latter moth feed on the roots.
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Flower-Visiting Insects of Long-Headed Coneflower in Illinois

Ratibida columnaris (Long-Headed Coneflower) introduced
(this plant is adventive from the Great Plains; insect activity is unspecified; information is limited; this observation is from Mawdsley; another common of this plant is 'Mexican Hat')

Beetles
Cleridae: Trichodes bibalteatus (Mwd)

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Known predators

Ratibida columnifera (wavyleaf thistle (forb/shrub)) is prey of:
Lepus townsendii
Coleoptera
Diptera
Hemiptera
Auchenorrhyncha
Sternorrhyncha
Hymenoptera
Papilionoidea
Thysanoptera
Spermophilus

Based on studies in:
USA: California, Cabrillo Point (Grassland)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • L. D. Harris and L. Paur, A quantitative food web analysis of a shortgrass community, Technical Report No. 154, Grassland Biome. U.S. International Biological Program (1972), from p. 17.
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General Ecology

Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: cover, fire frequency, frequency, wildfire

Upright prairie coneflower response to fire varies considerably,
depending to some extent on geographic area and season of burning.

Upright prairie coneflower was studied in tallgrass prairie of
northeastern Kansas, where it was abundant. Plants from sites not
burned for 9 years or more were 2.6 times larger, produced 50 percent
more stems, and had more flowerheads and seeds than did plants from
recently burned sites. Reproductive effort (the ratio of inflorescence
biomass to total vegetative biomass) was 33 percent lower in annually
burned prairie than in prairies with longer fire intervals. However,
percent cover and frequency were not significantly different between
burned and unburned sites. Variation in upright prairie coneflower
response to fire is probably due to changes in its competitive status
relative to the dominant perennial grasses and to changes in abiotic
conditions after fire [28]. Another study in northeastern Kansas
reported that upright prairie coneflower cover was not significantly
correlated with years since burning at postfire years 1 to 4 [58].

Upright prairie coneflower was less prevalent on north-central Nebraska
sand hills 2 to 3 months after an early May wildfire than on similar
unburned sites [56].

Changes in upright prairie coneflower flowering were not significant
after May prescribed fires in northwestern Minnesota [40]. A survey of
literature on plant response to fire indicates that upright prairie
coneflower decreased or showed no change in response to spring fires
[35].

Upright prairie coneflower in a south Texas chaparral-bristlegrass
(Setaria spp.) community had varying responses to fire. Plots burned in
September produced 3 pounds of upright prairie coneflower herbage per
acre; plots burned the December of the next year produced 8 pounds per
acre; plots burned at both times produced 3 pounds per acre. Unburned
plots produced 2 pounds per acre [6]. Percent cover of upright prairie
coneflower was 3 percent or less on all burned and unburned plots, some
of which were also mechanically treated by shredding, chopping, or
scalping [5].

Upright prairie coneflower in tallgrass prairie in northeastern Kansas
was burned on different schedules on matched plots. Cover was less than
1 percent on all treatments, burned and unburned. Frequency varied with
soil type, fire frequency, and season of burning [23].
  • 5. Box, Thadis W.; Powell, Jeff; Drawe, D. Lynn. 1967. Influence of fire on south Texas chaparral communities. Ecology. 48(6): 955-961. [499]
  • 6. Box, Thadis W.; White, Richard S. 1969. Fall and winter burning of south Texas brush ranges. Journal of Range Management. 22(6): 373-376. [11438]
  • 23. Gibson, David J. 1989. Hulbert's study of factors effecting botanical composition of tallgrass prairie. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 115-133. [14029]
  • 28. Hartnett, David C. 1991. Effects of fire in tallgrass prairie on growth and reproduction of prairie coneflower (Ratibida columnifera: Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany. 78(3): 429-435. [14117]
  • 35. Kruse, Arnold D.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1990. Effects of prescribed fire upon wildlife habitat in northern mixed-grass prairie. In: Alexander, M. E.; Bisgrove, G. F., technical coordinators. The art and science of fire management: Proceedings, 1st Interior West Fire Council annual meeting and workshop; 1988 October 24-27; Kananaskis Village, AB. Inf. Rep. NOR-X-309. Edmonton, AB: Forestry Canada, Northwest Region, Northern Forestry Centre: 182-193. [14146]
  • 40. Pemble, R. H.; Van Amburg, G. L.; Mattson, Lyle. 1981. Intraspecific variation in flowering activity following a spring burn on a northwestern Minnesota prairie. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The prairie peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey: Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 235-240. [3435]
  • 56. Wolfe, Carl W. 1973. Effects of fire on a sandhills grassland environment. In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1972 June 8-9; Lubbock, TX. Number 12. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station: 241-255. [8469]
  • 58. Gibson, David J. 1988. Regeneration and fluctuation of tallgrass prairie vegetation in response to burning frequency. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 115(1): 1-12. [4426]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Upright prairie coneflower is probably top-killed by fire during the
growing season.

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the term: secondary colonizer

Caudex, growing points in soil
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer - off-site seed

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: caudex, presence

Upright prairie coneflower is fire sensitive when actively growing, but
has good fire tolerance in the dormant state [53] since it sprouts from
the caudex [26,55]. In the central Great Plains tallgrass prairie,
upright prairie coneflower was reported to be harmed by fire [57].
Upright prairie coneflower produces numerous small seeds [1] and can
establish on burned sites, since it thrives in the open, sunny
conditions [45] created by fire. It may be an initial on-site
colonizer, but no information was available on presence in the seedbank.
  • 1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 26. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 45. Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 1989. Catalog of wildflowers and forbs. Amarillo, TX: Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 20 p. [18001]
  • 53. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]
  • 55. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 57. Wright, Henry A.; Thompson, Rita. 1978. Fire effects. In: Fire management: Prairie plant communities: Proceedings of a symposium and workshop; 1978 April 25-28; Jamestown, ND. [Place of publication unknown]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

Hemicryptophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: forb

Forb

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Successional Status

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Facultative Seral Species

Upright prairie coneflower is listed as an early seral species in
southeastern Montana [17]. It shows weak shade tolerance and is usually
found on open or exposed sites [53].

After the drought of the 1930's, upright prairie coneflower was
particularly common in mixed-grass prairie of the Great Plains as bare
areas were colonized. It was one of only five species that showed
marked recovery from the drought by 1943 [12].

Upright prairie coneflower was not present on a range site in
southwestern North Dakota that had been ungrazed for 39 years. A
similar grazed site had an average of 1.3 upright prairie coneflower
stems per square meter [7].
  • 7. Brand, M. D.; Goetz, H. 1978. Secondary succession of a mixed grass community in southwestern North Dakota. Annual Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science. 32(2): 67-78. [7512]
  • 12. Coupland, Robert T. 1958. The effects of fluctuations in weather upon the grasslands of the Great Plains. Botanical Review. 24(5): 273-317. [12502]
  • 17. Eddleman, Lee E.; Doescher, Paul S. 1978. Selection of native plants for spoils revegetation based on regeneration characteristics and successional status. In: Land Reclamation Program, Annual Report July 1976-October 1977. ANL/LRP-2. Argonne, IL: Argonne National Laboratory, Energy & Environmental Systems Division: 132-138. [5729]
  • 53. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Regeneration Processes

The most frequent pollinator of upright prairie coneflower in
northeastern Kansas is an andrenid bee (Andrena rudbekii) [28].

Requirements for optimum germination of upright prairie coneflower seeds
vary.

According to research conducted in east-central South Dakota, upright
prairie coneflower seeds have an impermeable membrane which completely
inhibits germination. Moist-cold stratification produced 11 percent
germination. If the seed membrane was punctured with a probe,
germination increased to 95-100 percent without stratification. Filled
seed constituted 47.5 percent of the seed collected [46].

Upright prairie coneflower seeds from southeastern Montana outlier
stands of tallgrass prairie were tested for viability, germination, and
seedling vigor. Seeds had good germination over a broad range of
temperatures and pretreatments; optimum germination temperatures were 68
to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (20-30 deg C). At 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20
deg C), 50 percent germination was achieved in 2 days. Seedling
survival was excellent [18].

Germination rates of upright prairie coneflower seeds from western North
Dakota were tested. Maximum germination occurred with dry cold storage
(29%, occurring in January) [4].

Upright prairie coneflower can regrow until seasonal maturity if
partially defoliated by mowing or grazing [53].
  • 4. Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1989. Promising native forbs for seeding on mine spoils. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council: 255-262. [14354]
  • 18. Eddleman, Lee E.; Meinhardt, Patricia L. 1981. Seed viability and seedling vigor in selected prairie plants. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The Prairie Peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 213-217. [3410]
  • 28. Hartnett, David C. 1991. Effects of fire in tallgrass prairie on growth and reproduction of prairie coneflower (Ratibida columnifera: Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany. 78(3): 429-435. [14117]
  • 46. Sorensen, J. T.; Holden, D. J. 1974. Germination of native prairie forb seeds. Journal of Range Management. 27(2): 123-126. [15617]
  • 53. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Upright prairie coneflower resumes growth in spring [53]. In
north-central Texas, it broke dormancy in early March, bloomed in June,
and shed seed in July [16]. In southwestern North Dakota, upright
prairie coneflower resumed growth in late April, bloomed during the
latter part of July, and obtained maximum height by the end of July.
Mature height, averaged over 8 years (1955-1962), was 11.3 inches (28.7
cm) [25]. Upright prairie coneflower bloomed an average of 41 days a
year in central North Dakota [8].

Upright prairie coneflower flowering times are:

Begin Peak End
Flowering Flowering Flowering

CO June July September [14]
KS June July September [28]
ND June July August [8]
North TX June ---- ---- [16]
South TX April ---- ---- [52]
UT June ---- August [14]
WY July July September [14]
Great Plains June ---- September [26]
N. Great Plains July ---- September [51]
  • 26. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 8. Callow, J. Michael; Kantrud, Harold A.; Higgins, Kenneth F. 1992. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 24(2): 57-64. [20450]
  • 14. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 16. Dyksterhuis, E. J. 1948. The vegetation of the western Cross Timbers. Ecological Monographs. 18(3): 326-376. [3683]
  • 25. Goetz, Harold. 1963. Growth and development of native range plants in the mixed grass prairie of western North Dakota. Fargo, ND: North Dakota State University. 141 p. Thesis. [5661]
  • 28. Hartnett, David C. 1991. Effects of fire in tallgrass prairie on growth and reproduction of prairie coneflower (Ratibida columnifera: Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany. 78(3): 429-435. [14117]
  • 51. Vance, F. R.; Jowsey, J. R.; McLean, J. S. 1984. Wildflowers of the Northern Great Plains. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 336 p. [22199]
  • 52. Vora, Robin S. 1990. Plant phenology in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 42(2): 137-142. [11832]
  • 53. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ratibida columnifera

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Source: NatureServe

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Status

Please consult the Plants Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the terms: cover, forbs, frequency

Upright prairie coneflower responds variably to grazing. It often
increases in mixtures with more palatable species, but decreases in
mixed-grass prairies lacking more palatable forbs [53]. On mixed-grass
prairie in east-central South Dakota, upright prairie coneflower
increases when cattle grazing reduces more palatable species [38].

In southwestern Texas, upright prairie coneflower occurred on severely
overgrazed shortgrass pasture [11]. A 1-year study in southeastern
Texas showed no significant difference in upright prairie coneflower
cover between short-duration and continuous grazing pastures [9].

Upright prairie coneflower increased slightly following mechanical brush
removal in west-central Texas [43].

A northeastern Kansas tallgrass prairie containing upright prairie
coneflower was mowed with different schedules on matched plots. Upright
prairie coneflower canopy cover after mowing was less than 1 percent on
all plots. Frequency ranged from 0 to 45 percent, varying with soil and
mowing treatment [23].

Upright prairie coneflower seeds can be planted in the fall. If they
are placed in winter storage for spring planting, they should be
stratified with a cold dry treatment [4].
  • 4. Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1989. Promising native forbs for seeding on mine spoils. In: Walker, D. G.; Powter, C. B.; Pole, M. W., compilers. Reclamation, a global perspective: Proceedings of the conference; 1989 August 27-31; Calgary, AB. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council: 255-262. [14354]
  • 9. Cohen, Will E.; Drawe, D. Lynn; Bryant, Fred C.; Bradley, Lisa C. 1989. Observations on white-tailed deer and habitat response to livestock grazing in south Texas. Journal of Range Management. 42(5): 361-365. [9323]
  • 11. Cottle, H. J. 1931. Studies in the vegetation of southwestern Texas. Ecology. 12(1): 105-155. [4556]
  • 23. Gibson, David J. 1989. Hulbert's study of factors effecting botanical composition of tallgrass prairie. In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: Proceedings, 11th North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska: 115-133. [14029]
  • 38. Lewis, James K.; Van Dyne, George M.; Albee, Leslie R.; Whetzal, Frank W. 1956. Intensity of grazing: Its effect on livestock and forage production. Bulletin 459. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State College, Agricultural Experiment Station. 44 p. [11737]
  • 43. Rollins, Dale; Bryant, Fred C. 1986. Floral changes following mechanical brush removal in central Texas. Journal of Range Management. 39(3): 237-240. [10415]
  • 53. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Available through native plant seed sources specializing in Great Plains species. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Prairie coneflower seeds can be planted in the fall. If they are placed in winter storage for spring planting, they should be stratified with a cold dry treatment.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full sun, dry conditions, and a relatively barren soil containing clay, gravel, or sand. On moist fertile ground, this wildflower has trouble competing with taller and more aggressive plants.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

More info for the terms: cover, natural, reclamation, restoration

Upright prairie coneflower is suggested for use on roadsides, park and
recreation areas, and prairie restoration projects where annual
precipitation is from 10 to 30 inches (254-762 mm) [45]. Plant vigor
and seed quality are rated excellent [32]. Upright prairie coneflower
has been established successfully from seed [3,17,42], greenhouse stock
[3], and tissue culture [31]. Research from southeastern Montana,
however, indicates that moisture stress can reduce growth of seedlings.
The potential for for vigorous establishment during extended drought was
rated as low to moderate [18].

Prairie hay harvested from natural grassland in 1978 was used
successfully as a source of upright prairie coneflower seeds in central
North Dakota. This method was used to establish vegetation in the
Central Great Plains after the drought of the 1930's. Both recently
harvested and stored hay produced seedlings in greeenhouse tests [42].

Upright prairie coneflower seeds were collected locally in southwestern
Ohio, and raked into the soil of a prairie reclamation site on a sand
and gravel borrow-pit. The seeds germinated and the plants flowered [10].

Upright prairie coneflower seeds collected in the Badlands of western
North Dakota were grown on raw coal spoil material. Upright prairie
coneflower had good emergence of seedlings. Seedlings and greenhouse
transplants showed vigorous growth for 2 years. Upright prairie
coneflower developed substantially more cover on the plots than did most
of the other species tested [3].

In southeastern Montana, upright prairie coneflower was recommended for
inclusion in seed mixtures for strip mine reclamation. Seeds germinated
well even under high water stress and with high sodium chloride
concentration in the soil. Seedling performance was favorable [17].
  • 3. Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Whitman, Warren C. 1982. Perennial forbs for wildlife habitat restoration on mined lands in the northern Great Plains. In: Western proceedings, 62nd annual conference of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies; 1982 July 19-22; Las Vegas, Nevada. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 10. Conover, Denis G.; Geiger, Donald R. 1989. Establishment of a prairie on a borrow-pit at the Bergamo-Mt. St. John Nature Preserve in Greene County, Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science. 89(3): 42-44. [9744]
  • 17. Eddleman, Lee E.; Doescher, Paul S. 1978. Selection of native plants for spoils revegetation based on regeneration characteristics and successional status. In: Land Reclamation Program, Annual Report July 1976-October 1977. ANL/LRP-2. Argonne, IL: Argonne National Laboratory, Energy & Environmental Systems Division: 132-138. [5729]
  • 18. Eddleman, Lee E.; Meinhardt, Patricia L. 1981. Seed viability and seedling vigor in selected prairie plants. In: Stuckey, Ronald L.; Reese, Karen J., eds. The Prairie Peninsula--in the "shadow" of Transeau: Proceedings, 6th North American prairie conference; 1978 August 12-17; Columbus, OH. Ohio Biological Survey Biological Notes No. 15. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Biological Sciences: 213-217. [3410]
  • 31. Holden, D. J.; Ellis, B. E.; Chen, C. H. 1978. Cloning native prairie plants by tissue culture. In: Glenn-Lewin, David C.; Landers, Roger Q., Jr., eds. Proceedings, 5th Midwest prairie conference; 1976 August 22-24; Ames, IA. Ames, IA: Iowa State University: 92-95. [3355]
  • 32. Jacobson, Erling T. 1975. The evaluation, selection and increase of prairie wildflowers for conservation beautification. In: Wali, Mohan K., ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota Press: 395-404. [4437]
  • 42. Ries, R. E.; Hofmann, L. 1983. Number of seedlings established from stored prairie hay. In: Brewer, Richard, ed. Proceedings, 8th North American prairie conference; 1982 August 1-4; Kalamazoo, MI. Kalamazoo, MI: Western Michigan University, Department of Biology: 3-4. [3112]
  • 45. Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 1989. Catalog of wildflowers and forbs. Amarillo, TX: Sharp Bros. Seed Co. 20 p. [18001]

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Cover Value

More info for the term: cover

The cover value of upright prairie coneflower for wildlife in North
Dakota is fair for mule deer and pronghorn, and poor for white-tailed
deer [14].
  • 14. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: forbs

In a 1-year study in the central Black Hills of South Dakota, upright
prairie coneflower made up 0.4 percent of cattle diets in June but was
not utilized from July through October [50].

Another 1-year study showed that upright prairie coneflower was an
important species in the diets of white-tailed deer in southeastern
Texas from early spring through summer [9]. However, upright prairie
coneflower seedlings in restored native prairie in southeastern
Minnesota were not grazed by white-tailed deer, although seedlings of
other forbs were eaten [19].

Upright prairie coneflower seeds were eaten by wild turkeys in
south-central South Dakota. In September and October these seeds made
up 1.2 percent of the volume of crop contents and were used by 10
percent of wild turkeys studied [37].
  • 9. Cohen, Will E.; Drawe, D. Lynn; Bryant, Fred C.; Bradley, Lisa C. 1989. Observations on white-tailed deer and habitat response to livestock grazing in south Texas. Journal of Range Management. 42(5): 361-365. [9323]
  • 19. Englund, Judy Voigt; Meyer, William J. 1986. The impact of deer on 24 species of prairie forbs. In: Clambey, Gary K.; Pemble, Richard H., eds. The prairie: past, present and future: Proceedings, 9th North American prairie conference; 1984 July 29 - August 1; Moorhead, MN. Fargo, ND: Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies: 210-212. [3575]
  • 37. Laudenslager, Scott L.; Flake, Lester D. 1987. Fall food habits of wild turkeys in south central South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist. 19(1): 37-40. [251]
  • 50. Uresk, Daniel W.; Lowrey, Dennis G. 1984. Cattle diets in the central Black Hills of South Dakota. In: Noble, Daniel L.; Winokur, Robert P., eds. Wooded draws: characteristics and values for the Northern Great Plains: Symposium proceedings; 1984 June 12-13; Rapid City, SD. Great Plains Agricultural Council Pub. No. 111. Rapid City, SD: South Dakota School of Mines and Technology: 50-52. [2400]

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Other uses and values

Cheyenne Indians boiled upright prairie coneflower leaves and stems to
make a solution applied externally to draw poison from rattlesnake
bites. The solution was also applied for relief from poison-ivy
(Toxicodendron spp.) [48].
  • 48. Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 465 p. [2270]

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Nutritional Value

Upright prairie coneflower energy value and protein value for livestock
is poor [14].

The food value of upright prairie coneflower is listed as follows [14]:

MT ND

Elk poor ----
Mule deer poor poor
White-tailed deer fair poor
Pronghorn ---- poor
Upland game birds good ----
Small nongame birds fair ----
Small mammals fair ----
  • 14. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]

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Palatability

Prior to heading upright prairie coneflower is palatable to livestock
[33,53].

Upright prairie coneflower palatability is rated poor to fair for cattle
and horses, and fair for sheep [14].
  • 14. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 33. Johnson, James R.; Nichols, James T. 1970. Plants of South Dakota grasslands: A photographic study. Bull. 566. Brookings, SD: South Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station. 163 p. [18501]
  • 53. Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Ecology and culture of selected species useful in revegetating disturbed lands in the West. FWS/OBS-82/56. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 347 p. [4837]

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Uses

Ethnobotanic: Tea was made from the leaves and flower heads. Cheyenne Indians boiled prairie coneflower leaves and stems to make a solution applied externally to draw the poison out of rattlesnake bites. An infusion was used to relieve the pain of headaches and to treat stomachaches and fevers (Moerman 1998). A decoction was used as a wash to relieve pain and to treat poison ivy rash (Ibid.).

Landscaping: Prairie coneflower is suggested for use in roadside plantings, parks, recreational areas and prairie restoration projects; where annual precipitation is from ten to thirty inches. This species is sometimes grown as an ornamental.

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Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Wikipedia

Ratibida columnifera

Ratibida columnifera, commonly known as Upright Prairie Coneflower or Mexican Hat, is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family, Asteraceae, that is native to much of North America. It inhabits prairies, plains, roadsides, and disturbed areas from southern Canada through most of the United States to northern Mexico.[2]

Uses[edit]

The Zuni people use an infusion of the whole plant as an emetic. [3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Wooton & Standl.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2005-01-05. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  2. ^ Stubbendieck, James L.; Stephan L. Hatch; L. M. Landholt (2003). North American Wildland Plants: A Field Guide (6 ed.). University of Nebraska Press. pp. 280–281. ISBN 978-0-8032-9306-9. 
  3. ^ Stevenson, Matilda Coxe 1915 Ethnobotany of the Zuni Indians. SI-BAE Annual Report #30 (p. 59)
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Notes

Comments

Ratibida columnifera is grown as an ornamental and is often included in wild flower plantings. Such activities may extend the geographic range of the species to roadsides and prairie-like habitats.

Some variants of Ratibida columnifera have been treated as varieties or forms. The most prominent of these is forma pulcherrima (de Candolle) Fernald, which is characterized by its showy, purplish yellow to purple rays; it is more frequent in the southwestern part of the range of the species. In the typical form, rays are yellow (E. L. Richards 1968).

Some authors have argued that Ratibida columnaris (Sims) D. Don is the correct name for this species; J. L. Reveal (1968) and E. L. Richards (1968) provided synoptic discussions of the issue.

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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

More info for the term: fern

The currently accepted scientific name of upright prairie coneflower is
Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. and Standl. (Asteraceae) [1,26,30,51].

There is one recognized form as follows:

R. c. forma pulcherrima (DC.) Fern. [1,26]

Upright prairie coneflower hybridizes with prairie coneflower (Ratibida
tagetes) in Colorado [54].
  • 1. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 26. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 30. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 51. Vance, F. R.; Jowsey, J. R.; McLean, J. S. 1984. Wildflowers of the Northern Great Plains. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 336 p. [22199]
  • 54. Weber, William A. 1987. Colorado flora: western slope. Boulder, CO: Colorado Associated University Press. 530 p. [7706]

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Common Names

upright prairie coneflower
prairie coneflower
columnar prairie coneflower
long headed coneflower
Mexican hat

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Synonyms

Ratibida columnaris (Sims) D. Don [34,48,52]
  • 48. Stubbendieck, J.; Hatch, Stephan L.; Hirsch, Kathie J. 1986. North American range plants. 3rd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. 465 p. [2270]
  • 52. Vora, Robin S. 1990. Plant phenology in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Texas Journal of Science. 42(2): 137-142. [11832]
  • 34. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954]

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