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Comprehensive Description

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Sisoridae Bleeker, 1858

In contrast to erethistids, sisorids lack a prominent posterior coracoid process on the pectoral girdle. When present, the coracoid process is only detectable as a small nub at the base of the pectoral fin, and is never long and prominent as in erethistids. Amblycipitids differ from sisorids in possessing a cuplike fold of skin in front of the pectoral fin; sisorids lack the fold of skin. Akysids, including Parakysidae of Roberts, 1989 (de Pinna 1996), differ from sisorids in having the nostrils on each side of the head widely separated, and a barbel on each posterior nostril. Sisorids have nostrils close together, separated by a nasal barbel (except nasal barbel absent in Sisor ZBK , nostrils separated by a flap of skin).

TABLE 3. External traits diagnostic for major clades of Sisoridae .

Sisorinae Glyptosterninae ; Glyptothoracini Glyptosterninae , Pseudecheneidina Glyptosterninae ; Glyptosternina ("glyptosternoids")
Genera Bagarius ZBK Gagata ZBK Gogangra ZBK Nangra ZBK Sisor ZBK Glyptothorax ZBK Pseudecheneis ZBK Euchiloglanis ZBK Exostoma ZBK Glaridoglanis ZBK Glyptosternon ZBK Myersglanis ZBK Oreoglanis ZBK Parachiloglanis ZBK Pareuchiloglanis ZBK Pseudexostoma ZBK
Adhesive apparatus on thorax No Yes Yes No
Grooves on adhesive apparatus - Parallel or oblique to axis of body Transverse to axis of body -
Adhesive apparatus on paired fins No Variable Yes Yes

Osteological traits used by de Pinna (1996) to diagnose Sisoridae from other Asian catfishes included lateral ethmoid with narrow lateral extensions directed posteriorly alongside lateral margin of frontals (coded as missing in all Sisorini ), extra cartilaginous element anterior to last basibranchial (reversed in Nangrina and Glyptosternina ; convergent in Parakysinae and Luguviini , sensu de Pinna (1996)), distal tip of os suspensorum closely linked and/or adpressed to ventral process of complex centrum, and posterior portion of Weberian lamina with lateral extension alongside anterior margin of parapophysis of fifth vertebra.

Following are diagnoses and descriptions of valid genera of Sisoridae , with lists of included species and their geographic distributions. Diagnostic traits are summarized in Tables 3-7. In identifying external traits to diagnose genera, it is useful to start with the four major clades diagnosed by de Pinna (1996) (Table 3), and then to examine traits within each of these major clades (Tables 4-7).

TABLE 4. External traits diagnostic for genera of Sisorinae

Sisor ZBK Bagarius ZBK Gagata ZBK Gogangra ZBK Nangra ZBK
Bony plates from dorsal fin to caudal fin base Yes No No No No
Uppermost caudal rays long; more than half length of body Yes No No No No
Adipose fin with spine Yes No No No No
Teeth in lower jaw Minute; essentially a roughened bony plate Heterodont; 2-3 outer rows of small conical teeth, 1-2 inner rows of larger conical teeth Homodont; several rows of small conical teeth Homodont; 2-3 rows of small conical teeth Homodont; 2-3 rows of small conical teeth
Nasal barbel length Barbel absent Less than eye diameter Less than eye diameter Less than eye diameter Much longer than eye diameter (extends at least to eye)
Branchiostegal membranes Broadly fused to isthmus Free from isthmus Broadly fused to isthmus Free from isthmus Free from isthmus
Head Depressed Depressed Compressed Moderately depressed Depressed
Palatal teeth No No No No Yes
Maxillary barbel length Not reaching pectoral fin base Reaching slightly past pectoral fin base Reaching pectoral fin base Reaching pectoral fin base Reaching at least pelvic fin base
Serrations on anterior margin of pectoral spine Yes; large No No Yes; small No
Relative positions of outer and inner mental barbel origins Far apart; inner barbel posterior to outer barbel Far apart; inner barbel anterior to outer barbel Close together; nearly in a straight line Far apart; inner barbel anterior to outer barbel Variable
Maxillary barbel membrane Welldeveloped Welldeveloped Not welldeveloped Not welldeveloped Welldeveloped

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