Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Atlanta is the type genus of the Atlantidae, containing all but two of the monospecific genera (Protatlanta and Oxygyrus) in the family. The shell and keel are calcareous. The larval shell is retained following metamorphosis, becoming the spire in the adult shell. All of the nineteen species but one, A. californiensis, dwell in tropical and subtropical waters. The majority of species (ten) are cosmopolitan and, among the remaining nine species, five are Indo-Pacific, two are restricted to the Pacific Ocean, one is Indo-Atlantic, and one is limited to the Atlantic Ocean.

Brief Diagnosis

An atlantid with:

  • Shell and keel calcareous
  • Larval shell becomes the spire in the adult shell

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Eye morphology of three types: a, b and c (see Atlantidae page)
  2. Operculum morphology of three types: a, b, c (see Atlantidae page)
  3. Radular morphology of two types: I and II (see Pterotracheoidea page)
  4. Shell
    1. The adult shell consists of three sequentially-deposited regions (see the images below); a dome-shaped embryonic shell (protoconch I) of about one whorl, a larval shell (protoconch II) of a variable number of whorls, and the adult shell (teleoconch) also of a variable number of whorls

      Figure. Scanning electron micrographs of the embryonic portion (protoconch I) of the larval shell (left), the larval shell (protoconch II; middle), and the adult shell (right) in Atlanta plana. Note that in the last SEM the protoconch is shaded blue to distinguish it from the teleoconch. Scale bars = 100 µm (middle) and 0.5 mm (right). © 2005 Roger R. Seapy

    2. The number of whorls comprising the shell spire is an important taxonomic character that can be difficult to visualize. When the shell is viewed from its right side, the total number of whorls that make up an adult shell can be determined by counting outward from the embryonic shell. In the above example of Atlanta plana, the shell possesses a total of 4-1/4 whorls. Although the total whorl count may be useful as a taxonomic character for describing fully-grown adults, it is variable in all other individuals since the number increases with shell growth. However, the number of whorls comprising the shell spire is not variable, but rather is predictable because it represents only the larval portion of the adult shell. In late-stage larvae (such as the larval shell image above), the last 1/4 whorl can be seen to increase noticeably in width by comparison with the preceding whorls. In larval shells that have surface sculpture, the junction between the larval shell and the beginning of the adult shell (teleoconch) is often marked by the termination of, or a change in, the sculpture pattern (see, for example, the SEM of the tilted shell spire on the A. brunnea page). Even without the ability to distinguish this point of transition the point at which the whorl width increases markedly is visible under the dissection microscope. The sketch below of the whorl sutures in Atlanta inflata give an example of the method used to determine the number of spire whorls. Note that in practice, the shell is first oriented so that the embryonic shell is directed upward in the field of view. Then, the whorls are counted outward from the embryonic part of the spire using an imaginary line directed upward. In the case of A. inflata, the number of spire whorls at the point of rapid increase in whorl width is 4-1/2. Examples of whorl sketches for two other species, A. lesueuri and A. peroni (from Richter and Seapy, 1999), are included below for comparison. Spire whorl numbers for the nineteen species of Atlanta are included in the table below and range from two and one-half (in A. lesueurii and A. oligogyra) to six (in A. gibbosa).

      Figure. Sketch of the whorl sutures from Atlanta inflata. The shell is oriented with the embryonic shell oriented upward and the whorls are counted based on an imaginary line directed upward. the numbers in the sketch denote the end of one whorl and the beginning of the next whorl. The number of whorls in the spire in this example is 4-1/2, as indicated by the arrow. © 2009 Roger R. Seapy


      Figure. Sketches of the whorl sutures on the shell spire and extending onto the first adult shell whorl in Atlanta lesueurii (left) and A. peronii (right). The dashed line in each sketch denotes the ending and beginning point for each spire whorl. The arrow at the bottom of each sketch indicates the number of whorls comprising the shell spire. © 2009 Roger R. Seapy
    3. The shape of the spire is highly variable among Atlanta species and can often serve as a distinctive character (see below). Examples include the tall, turreted spire of A. turriculata, the conical spire of A. brunnea, and the tilted (or "inclined") spires in the A. inclinata and A. gibbosa species groups .
    4. In addition to spire shape, spire ornamentation can also be very distinctive; ranging from smooth (e.g., the A. lesueurii species group and three of the members of the A. peronii species group) to ornamented by low, elevated spiral ridges (e.g., A. inflata, A. helicinoidea, and A. plana), to highly ornate and elevated sculpture (e.g., A. brunnea, A. echinogyra and A. turriculata).

  5. Nineteen species are currently regarded as valid in the genus Atlanta. These species are partitioned into seven species groups (see table below). Tesch (1908) was the first to group together the species of Atlanta sharing similar morphologies. He recognized four species groups; the A. peronii-, A. inflata-, A. turriculata-, and A. inclinata-groups. In addition to these four, three additional ones are currently recognized; the A. lesueurii-, A. gaudichaudi- and A. gibbosa groups. Except for Tesch's A. turriculata-group, the composition of Tesch's species groups has changed by species invalidations, the addition of new species over time, and addition of three new species groups. The main changes in Tesch's species groups have occurred in the A. peronii-group (with A. gaudichaudi and A. lesueurii now forming their own species groups) and the A. inclinata-group (the A. gibbosa now forming its own group).

    The geographic distribution of the species in the genus are summarized in the last three columns of the table below. The highest number of species occurs in the Pacific (17), followed by the Indian (16) and the Atlantic (12) Oceans. Ten species are cosmopolitan, recorded from all three major oceans, five (A. turriculata, A. frontieri, A. plana, A. echinogyra, and A.gibbosa) are Indo-Pacific, two (Atlanta inflata and A. californiensis) occur only in the Pacific, one (A. selvagensis) is Indo-Atlantic, and one (A. fragilis) has only been recorded from the Atlantic; no species are unique to the Indian Ocean. In should be noted that one species, A. meteori was previously regarded as Indo-Pacific, but was recorded from the northeastern Atlantic by de Vera, Seapy and Hernandez (2006) and must now be regarded as cosmopolitan.

    The seven species groups, their contained species, the distinguishing features of each group and species, and each species' geographic distribution are presented in the table below. The species comprising each species group share the same radular type, usually the same opercular type, and, in many cases, the same eye type.
Species group Group characteristics Species* Species characteristics Shell diameter (except keel) Number of spire whorls Eye type Opercular type Radular type Atlantic Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Indian Ocean
A. brunnea-
group
Shell small with tall, rounded keel; spire strongly elevated and sculptured, with complex ornamentation and a prominent spiral ridge; color darkens with age A. brunnea
Spire tall conical; color yellowish-brown to dark brown; circumglobal <2 mm 4 a a
I
+ + +
A. turriculata Spire tall, turreted; spire color yellowish- to reddish-brown and grading into clear outer shell whorl; Indo-Pacific <2 mm 4-1/4 a a
I
- + +
A. inflata- group Shell either inflated (width ca. 40% of shell diameter) or flat; spire large (relative to shell size) and low with shallow sutures or small and low; spire surface smooth to sculptured (with evenly-spaced spiral ridges) A. inflata Shell spire low conical, with low spiral ridges, varible in expression; spire sutures lack coloration; keel tall with truncate leading edge; keel base yellow-brown to brown; Pacific Ocean <1.5 mm 4-1/4 to 4-1/2 a c
I
- + -
A. selvagensis Shell spire low conical, with low spiral ridges, variable in expression; spire sutures reddish-brown; keel base yellow-brown to brown; Atlantic and Indian Oceans
<2 mm 3-1/2 to 3-3/4
a
c
I
+ - +
A. helicinoidea Body whorl of shell nearly circular in cross section; keel of low to moderate height, rounded; spire large with spiral ridges, somewhat variable in expression; spire light purple or yellow to yellow-tan; circumglobal <2 mm 4-1/2 to 4-3/4
c c
I
+ + +
A. californiensis Shell flattened; keel of moderate height, truncate, and with red-brown base; spire small (relative to shell size), low conical to globular, and smooth; colorless to uniformly or mottled, light yellow, brown or violet; North Pacific Ocean <3.5 mm 3-1/4 a c
I
- + -
A. lesueurii- group Shell spire very small; after larval metamorphosis, only a single and rapidly-expanding last whorl (teleoconch) is formed
A. lesueurii Shell entirely transparent; spire low and conical with prominent (deep) sutures; keel high, truncate; circumglobal <6 mm 2-1/2 b b
I
+ + +
A. oligogyra Shell faint pink to yellow; spire low and rounded with shallow sutures: keel of moderate height, rounded; circumglobal <3 mm 2-1/2 a b
I
+ + +
A. peronii- group Shell flat, of moderate to large size; spire small A. peronii Spire low, rounded; keel of moderate height, truncate; shell colorless, becoming faintly yellow in large specimens; circumglobal <10 mm 3-1/2 b b
II
+ + +
A. fragilis Shell fragile (thin-walled), transparent and completely colorless; keel high; Atlantic Ocean <9 mm 3-1/2 b b II
+ - -
A. rosea Spire nearly globular; spire whorls difficult to distinguish due to extremely shallow sutures of first two and one-half whorls; color faintly yellow; species name based on bright pink larval shell; circumglobal <5 mm 3-1/2 b b
II
+ + +
A. frontieri Spire low, with first and second whorls elevated, forming a low cone; distinctive thin, elevated spiral ridge along outer margin of spire whorls; keel of moderate height, rounded; colorless; Indian Ocean <5.5 mm 4-1/2 b b
II
- + +
A. gaudichaudi- group Shell flat; shell spire small, with low conical shape
A. gaudichaudi Spire smooth; keel of moderate height, truncate and with a brown base; shell colorless; circumglobal <3 mm 3-1/4 b b
I
+ + +
A. plana Spire low conical with weak, spiral ridges; spire sutures violet; keel moderately low and rounded, with a brown base; Indo-Pacific <3.5 mm 3-1/2 a b
I
- + +
A. echinogyra Spire low conical, slightly tilted relative to shell plane, with prominent spiral ridges and secondary sculpture; spire reddish-brown and teleoconch colorless; Indo-Pacific <2.5 mm 3-3/4 a c
I
- + +
A.inclinata- group Shell spire large, globose (bee-hive shaped), strongly inclined relative to shell plane, with shallow sutures and numerous small tuberculae on the surface; keel moderately high and rounded; internal shell wall of radially-arranged lines A. inclinata Spire with small tuberculae scattered on surface; spire weak rose color and last shell whorl colorless; circumglobal <7 mm 4-1/2 b c
II
+ + +
A. tokiokai Spire with spirally-arranged rows of low tuberculae; colorless to light yellow; circumglobal <3 mm 5-1/2 b c
II
+ + +
A. gibbosa- group Shell spire large and high; internal shell wall without radially-arranged lines; shell completely transparent and colorless A. gibbosa Spire moderately inclined relative to shell plane, with a broad base and pointed apex; circumglobal? (presence in Atlantic Ocean uncertain) <4 mm 6 b b
II
-? + +
A. meteori Spire strongly inclined relative to shell plane, conical and steep sided; keel high, truncate; circumglobal <4 mm 5-3/4 b b
II
+ + +

Comments

Noteworthy changes have been made in the authorship (and in some cases the spelling or, in the case of Atlanta brunnea, a change in the specific epithet) of seven species in the genus Atlanta that were originally described by Souleyet (1852) in a chapter on the Heteropoda collected from the Bonite Expedition of 1836/1837. Souleyet gave vernacular and species names (e.g., 'Atlante de Gaudichaud' and 'Atlanta Gaudichaudii, nobis'). However, J. E. Gray had earlier latinized Souleyet's vernacular names in an "Explanation of Plates" that was part of the third (1850) of a five volume (1842-1857) collection of illustrations copied by his wife, M. E. Gray from the then-existing literature, which included those from an Eydoux and Souleyet atlas of 1841? (for a more complete discussion, see the Preface in Janssen and Seapy, 2009). As a result, J. E. Gray formally became the author of all but one (A. gibbosa) of Souleyet's species. The affected species include:

  • Atlanta brunnea Gray, 1850 (= Atlanta fusca Souleyet, 1852)
  • Atlanta gaudichaudi Gray, 1850 (= Atlanta gaudichaudii Souleyet, 1852)
  • Atlanta helicinoidea Gray. 1850 (= Atlanta helicinoides Souleyet, 1852)
  • Atlanta inclinata Gray, 1850 (= Atlanta inclinata Souleyet, 1852)
  • Atlanta inflata Gray, 1850 (= Atlanta inflata Souleyet, 1852)
  • Atlanta lesueurii Gray, 1850 (= Atlanta lesueurii Souleyet, 1852)
  • Atlanta rosea Gray, 1850 (= Atlanta rosea Souleyet, 1852)
One species, Atlanta peresi, is not included in the table above because it most probably is not valid. It was described by Frontier (1966) from the western Indian Ocean off Madagascar. Although its adult shell morphology and opercular type were characterized by Frontier, its eye and radular morphologies are unknown. Unfortunately, no specimens from Frontier's collections have been found for further examination. Catherine Thiriot (pers. comm. to R. Seapy) had thought that Frontier's collections might have been deposited at the Observatoire Océanologique, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France; but her search for these collections proved futile. Richter (1974) concluded that there was substantial doubt that A. peresi was a valid species after his examination of the heteropods from the extensive collections of the Meteor Expedition in 1964-1965 to the northwestern Indian Ocean, including the Arabian Sea. In addition, examination of planktonic and benthic samples collected off western Australia (Seapy et al., 2003) did not record any specimens that could be identified as A. peresi. There have been no records of the species from the Pacific Ocean (Seapy, 1990a,b and 2008; Newman, 1990), although it was identified from the North Atlantic by Thiriot-Quiévreux (1968, 1970 and 1973). However, she subsequently concluded that the identifications were erroneous (R. Seapy, pers. comm.). The interested reader is referred to Richter and Seapy (1999: 640) for a further description and discussion of this problematic species.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 213 specimens in 28 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 125 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 4766
  Temperature range (°C): 1.824 - 28.240
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.152 - 41.112
  Salinity (PPS): 33.668 - 38.778
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.597 - 6.188
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 2.812
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.754 - 160.712

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 4766

Temperature range (°C): 1.824 - 28.240

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.152 - 41.112

Salinity (PPS): 33.668 - 38.778

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.597 - 6.188

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 2.812

Silicate (umol/l): 0.754 - 160.712
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Atlanta (gastropod)

Atlanta is a genus of pelagic marine gastropod molluscs in the family Atlantidae. They are sometimes called heteropods.[2]

Distribution[edit]

All of the nineteen species but one, Atlanta californiensis, dwell in tropical and subtropical waters.[3] The majority of species (ten) are cosmopolitan and, among the remaining nine species, five are Indo-Pacific, two are restricted to the Pacific Ocean, one is Indo-Atlantic, and one is limited to the Atlantic Ocean.[3]

They are floating or swimming snails in tropical and subtropical seas. Most have a cosmopolitan distribution, but A. brunnea, A. pulchella and A. quoyi are only found in American waters. A. fusca, A. pacifica and A. rosea are restricted the seas around Japan.

Description[edit]

It has been recognized by several authors that identification of species in this genus is difficult and is dependent on their morphology of eyes, radula and operculum.

Main diagnostic features include: the shell and keel are calcareous;[3] larval shell becomes the spire in the adult shell.[3]

Snails of this genus are very small. Their coiled, calcareous[3] shell has a diameter of less than 1 cm. The protoconch of the larval shell is retained after metamorphosis and becomes the spire of the adult shell.[3] The number of spire whirls varies from 2½ (in the A. lesueuri- group) to 6 (A. gibbosa) and is thus also helpful in the identification of a species. The spire shape differs between the species groups, from very small (A. lesueuri- group), to inflated or flat (A. inflata- group ) to large (A.inclinata- group and A. gibbosa- group).

They can retract into their shell and close it off with an operculum. This operculum is cartilaginous and flexible. In 1961 Richter distinguished three types of the operculum[4] in which the larval gyre of the operculum is apical. This gyre can be relatively somewhat larger (macro-oligogyre), smaller (micro-oligogyre) or a single gyre (monogyre).

The eye morphology also consists of three types with differences in pigmented region between the lens and the retina.

The radula is typically taenioglossate with one central (rachidian) tooth, with on each side one lateral tooth and two marginal teeth. In 13 species the number of tooth rows increases during growth (Type I), while in 8 species the radula has a limited number of tooth rows (Type II).[4]

Identification[edit]

Many authors (e.g., Thiriot-Quiévreux, 1973, p. 240; Richter, 1974, p. 60; Seapy, 1990, p. 107) admit that identification of Atlanta species is difficult and including soft-part features (eyes, radula, operculum) or application of transmitted light to observe inner shell structures (Richter, 1987, p. 178) are very helpful in distinguishing species with similar shells.[1] However, such methods are unavailable for fossil material.[1] This makes identifying fossil species of Atlanta quite difficult and even well-preserved specimens occasionally can only be related to existing taxa with a query (e.g., Atlanta sp. in Janssen, 2004, p. 108; Atlanta cf. echinogyra in Jansen 2007).[1] Advantageous in this study of fossil atlantids, however, is the fact that all specimens are preserved as opaque aragonitic shells as a result of recrystallisation, which facilitates assessing protoconch shape and ornament with a normal 25 or 50× binocular magnification, they are thus much easier studied than in the usually very transparent and shiny Recent specimens.[1] Still, here, too, study of the larval shell shape and micro-ornamentation by SEM is highly desirable or even indispensable.[1]

Species[edit]

Atlanta includes a large number of Recent species. Lalli & Gilmer (1989)[5] listed 14 species, but Richter & Seapy (1999)[6] recognised 21 extant species, provisionally subdivided into seven ‘species groups’ (and one species unassigned).[1] A further Recent species was described since; Atlanta selvagensis de Vera & Seapy, 2006.[1]

Species in the genus Atlanta include:

Species brought into synonymy
  • Subgenus Atlanta (Heliconoides) d'Orbigny, 1835: synonym of Heliconoides d'Orbigny, 1835
  • Atlanta bulimoides d'Orbigny, 1834: synonym of Limacina bulimoides (d'Orbigny, 1834)
  • Atlanta fusca Souleyet, 1852: synonym of Atlanta brunnea J. E. Gray, 1850
  • Atlanta gaudichaudii Souleyet, 1852: synonym of Atlanta gaudichaudi J. E. Gray, 1850
  • Atlanta gibbosa Souleyet, 1852:[27] synonym of Atlanta inclinata J. E. Gray, 1850
  • Atlanta helicinoides Souleyet, 1852: synonym of Atlanta helicinoidea J. E. Gray, 1850
  • Atlanta inclinata Souleyet, 1852: synonym of Atlanta inclinata J. E. Gray, 1850
  • Atlanta inflata Souleyet, 1852: synonym of Atlanta inflata J. E. Gray, 1850
  • Atlanta inflata d'Orbigny, 1834: synonym of Heliconoides inflata (d'Orbigny, 1834)
  • Atlanta lamanoni Gray, 1850: synonym of Protatlanta souleyeti (E. A. Smith, 1888)
  • Atlanta lesueurii Souleyet, 1852: synonym of Atlanta lesueurii J. E. Gray, 1850
  • Atlanta lesueurii d'Orbigny, 1835: synonym of Limacina lesueurii (d'Orbigny, 1835)
  • Atlanta quoyana Smith, 1888:[28] synonym of Atlanta quoyii J. E. Gray, 1850
  • Atlanta steindachneri Oberwimmer, 1898: synonym of Atlanta peronii Lesueur, 1817
  • Atlanta trochiformis d'Orbigny, 1834: synonym of Limacina trochiformis (d'Orbigny, 1834)

Based on similar morphologies, these species have been placed in seven species groups:[3][29]

 Atlanta (19 recent species) 
 Atlanta brunnea species group 

Atlanta brunnea



Atlanta turriculata



 Atlanta inflata species group 

Atlanta inflata



Atlanta helicinoidea



Atlanta californiensis



Atlanta selvagensis



 Atlanta lesueurii species group 

Atlanta lesueurii



Atlanta oligogyra



 Atlanta peronii species group 

Atlanta peronii



Atlanta fragilis



Atlanta rosea



Atlanta frontieri



 Atlanta gaudichaudi species group 

Atlanta gaudichaudi



Atlanta plana



Atlanta echinogyra



 Atlanta inclinata species group 

Atlanta inclinata



Atlanta tokiokai



 Atlanta gaudichaudi species group 

Atlanta gibbosa



Atlanta meteori




Tesch (1908) was the first to group together the species of Atlanta sharing similar morphologies.[3] He recognized four species groups; the Atlanta peronii-, Atlanta inflata-, Atlanta turriculata-, and Atlanta inclinata-groups.[3] In addition to these four, three additional ones are currently recognized; the Atlanta lesueurii-, Atlanta gaudichaudi- and Atlanta gibbosa groups.[3] Except for Tesch's Atlanta turriculata-group, the composition of Tesch's species groups has changed by species invalidations, the addition of new species over time, and addition of three new species groups.[3] The main changes in Tesch's species groups have occurred in the Atlanta peronii-group (with Atlanta gaudichaudi and Atlanta lesueurii now forming their own species groups) and the Atlanta inclinata-group (the Atlanta gibbosa now forming its own group).[3]

References[edit]

This article incorporates CC-BY-3.0 text from references.[1][3]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Janssen A. W. (2007). "Holoplanktonic Mollusca (Gastropoda: Pterotracheoidea, Janthinoidea, Thecosomata and Gymnosomata) from the Pliocene of Pangasinan (Luzon, Philippines)". Scripta Geologica 135. 
  2. ^ a b Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2012). Atlanta. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=137687 on 2012-07-18
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Seapy R. R. (2010). Atlanta. Version 17 July 2010. Tree of Life Web Project, accessed 19 August 2010.
  4. ^ a b Richter G. (1961). "Die Radula der Atlantiden (Heteropoda, Prosobranchia) und ihre Bedeutung für die Systematik und Evolution der Famiie". Morphol. Okol. Tiere 50: 163–238. 
  5. ^ Lalli C. M. & Gilmer R. W. (1989). Pelagic Snails. The Biology of Holoplanktonic Gastropod Mollusks. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California: viii + 259 pp. page 52.
  6. ^ Richter G. & Seapy R. R. (1999). "Heteropoda". In: D. Boltovskoy (ed.) South Atlantic zooplankton, 1. Backhuys, Leiden: 621-647. page 631.
  7. ^ WoRMS (2010). Atlanta brunnea J. E. Gray, 1850. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=238118 on 2010-08-19
  8. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta californiensis Seapy & Richter, 1993. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=430414 on 2010-08-19
  9. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta echinogyra Richter, 1972. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=430420 on 2010-08-19
  10. ^ Gofas, S. (2009). Atlanta fragilis Richter, 1993. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=244556 on 2010-08-19
  11. ^ Seapy R. R. (2010). Atlanta frontieri Richter 1993. Version 31 January 2010 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Atlanta_frontieri/28758/2010.01.31 in The Tree of Life Web Project, accessed 19 August 2010.
  12. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta gaudichaudi J. E. Gray, 1850. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=430418 on 2010-08-19
  13. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta helicinoidea J. E. Gray, 1850. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=419791 on 2010-08-19
  14. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta inclinata J. E. Gray, 1850. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=430422 on 2010-08-19
  15. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta inflata J. E. Gray, 1850. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=430413 on 2010-08-19
  16. ^ WoRMS (2010). Atlanta lesueurii J. E. Gray, 1850. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=430416 on 2010-08-19
  17. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta meteori Richter, 1972. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=430425 on 2010-08-19
  18. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta oligogyra Tesch, 1806. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2009) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=244554 on 2010-08-19
  19. ^ Gofas, S. (2009). Atlanta peronii Lesueur, 1817. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2009) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138838 on 2010-08-19
  20. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta plana Richter, 1972. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=430419 on 2010-08-19
  21. ^ Rosenberg, G. (2010). Atlanta pulchella A. E. Verrill, 1884. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=160169 on 2010-08-19
  22. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta quoyii J. E. Gray, 1850. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=419792 on 2010-08-19
  23. ^ Gofas, S. (2009). Atlanta rosea Souleyet, 1852. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=238120 on 2010-08-19
  24. ^ Vera, A de & Seapy, R.R. (2006). "Atlanta selvagensis, a new species of heteropod mollusc from the northeastern Atlantic Ocean (Gastropoda: Carinarioidea).". Vieraea, 34: 45–54. 
  25. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta tokiokai van der Spoel and Troost, 1972. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=430423 on 2010-08-19
  26. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta turriculata d'Orbigny 1835. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=430412 on 2010-08-19
  27. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta gibbosa Souleyet, 1852. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=430424 on 2010-08-19
  28. ^ WoRMS (2009). Atlanta quoyana Smith, 1888. Accessed through the World Register of Marine Species at http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=238119 on 2010-08-19
  29. ^ Richter G. & Seapy R. R. (1999). Heteropoda. In: D. Boltovskoy (ed.). South Atlantic zooplankton, 1. Backhuys, Leiden; p. 621-647.
  • Richter G. & Seapy R.R. 1999. Heteropoda, pp. 621–647. In: D. Boltovskoy (ed.), South Atlantic Zooplankton. Leiden: Backhuys Publ.
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. (2001). Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180–213
  • Rolán E., 2005. Malacological Fauna From The Cape Verde Archipelago. Part 1, Polyplacophora and Gastropoda.
  • Rosenberg, G., F. Moretzsohn, and E. F. García. 2009. Gastropoda (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 579–699 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas.
  • Spencer, H.; Marshall. B. (2009). All Mollusca except Opisthobranchia. In: Gordon, D. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity. Volume One: Kingdom Animalia. 584 pp
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!