Overview

Brief Summary

Taxon Biology

Kingdom Plantae

Subkingdom Tracheobionta

Superdivision Spermatophyta

Division Magnoliophyta

Class Magnoliopsida

Subclass Asteridae

Order Asterales

Family Asteraceae

Tribe Vernonieae

Subfamily Tubiliflorae

Genus Stokesia

Species laevis

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Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests, Native of Temperate America"
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Palynology

According to Wodehouse, Stokesia laevis has echinolophate pollen with surface ridges and prominent spines. (Skvarla, DeVore & Chissoe, 2005.)

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General Description

Stokesia laevis was first described by John Hill in 1768 in Hortus Kewensis as Carthamus laevis. Then, in 1789, L'Heritier described the genus Stokesia, and Edward Greene renamed the species Stokesia laevis in 1893 in the journal Erythea.

It is the only species belonging to the genus Stokesia.

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Gulf Coast, from Louisiana eastward to the Florida Panhandle, and irregularly northward on the Atlantic coastal plain to South Carolina. Occasionally planted and escaped from cultivation both within and somewhat outside this range (as in North Carolina).

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Tamil Nadu: Dindigul
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Stokesia laevis is found in the southeastern United States. It grows from Louisiana east to the Atlantic coast, and south to the tip of Florida.

For more information, see the map provided by Flora of North America. (Strother, 2006.)

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Stems tomentulose, glabrescent. Leaves: basal with petioles 3–12 cm, narrowly winged, blades 8–15 × 1–5 cm; cauline sessile, ± clasping, blades 5–12 × 1–3 cm. Involucres 25–45 × 25–45 mm. Phyllaries: outer 15–35+ mm, foliaceous portions elliptic to spatulate or linear, margins ± spiny, inner oblong to linear, 10–15+ mm, margins mostly entire, tips spiny. Corollas 15–25+ mm (outer) or 12–15+ mm (inner). Cypselae 5–8 mm; pappi 8–12 mm. 2n = 14.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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"Stems tomentulose, glabrescent. Leaves: basal with petioles 3–12 cm, narrowly winged, blades 8–15 × 1–5 cm; cauline sessile, ± clasping, blades 5–12 × 1–3 cm. Involucres 25–45 × 25–45 mm. Phyllaries: outer 15–35+ mm, foliaceous portions elliptic to spatulate or linear, margins ± spiny, inner oblong to linear, 10–15+ mm, margins mostly entire, tips spiny. Corollas 15–25+ mm (outer) or 12–15+ mm (inner). Cypselae 5–8 mm; pappi 8–12 mm. 2n = 14."

John L. Strother. “Stokesia” in Flora of North America, Vol. 19, pp. 201-202 Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, NY. 2006.

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Synonym

Carthamus laevis Hill, Hort. Kew., 57, plate 5. 1768
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Pine flatwoods, pitcher-plant bogs, etc.

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Open woodlands, coastal plains and bogs

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Trophic Strategy

Autotroph

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Associations

Stokesia laevis attracts a variety of bees, flies, and butterflies, as well as a few species of bird.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Phenology

Flowers June to September

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Perennial

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Growth

Stokesia laevis has a medium growth rate.

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Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

Chemistry

Stokesia laevis contains epoxy fatty acids in its seed oil, contributing its economic and agricultural importance. (Kleiman, 1990.)

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Cell Biology

Cytology

Stokesia laevis was originally thought to have a chromosome number of n = 9. (Jones, 1968.) In a later paper, however, Jones revised the number to n = 7 following studies by Gunn and White, postulating that Stokesia and Vernonia may have shared a common genome in the past. (Jones, 1974.)

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

Genetic analysis of three generations of Stokesia laevis populations suggests that the flower color is controlled by at least three loci involved with the synthesis of anthocyanins, flavonoids and other pigments. (Barb, Werner & Griesbach. 2008.)

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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Stokesia laevis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Stokesia laevis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: Distribution primarily in eastern portion of Gulf coastal plain, from eastern Louisiana (3 parishes) to the Florida Panhandle (3 counties), with a few outlying sites in Georgia and South Carolina. Habitat abundant within the primary range; no information readily found on abundance at its better sites, although said to be generally common in eastern Louisiana.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Stokesia laevis is used in gardens as an ornamental or an insect attractant. Its ability to produce epoxy fatty acids may be of economic importance in the future, especially as renewable sources are more sought after.

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Wikipedia

Stokesia (plant)

For other uses, see Stokesia.

Stokesia is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the daisy family, Asteraceae, containing the single species Stokesia laevis. Common names include Stokes' aster and stokesia.[2][3] The species is native to the southeastern United States.

The flowers appear in the summer and are purple, blue, or white in nature.[1] The plant is cultivated as a garden flower. Several cultivars are available, including the cornflower blue 'Klaus Jelitto', 'Colorwheel', which is white, turning purple over time, and 'Blue Danube', which has a blue flower head with a white center.[4] More unusual cultivars include the pink-flowered 'Rosea' and yellow-flowered 'Mary Gregory'.[5]

Like a few other plants (such as some species of Vernonia), it contains vernolic acid, a vegetable oil with commercial applications.[6]

The genus is named after Jonathan Stokes (1755–1831), English botanist and physician.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Stokesia L’Héritier. Flora of North America.
  2. ^ Stokesia laevis. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
  3. ^ Stokesia laevis. NatureServe. 2012.
  4. ^ Stokesia laevis. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  5. ^ Stokesia laevis. Floridata.
  6. ^ Cahoon, E. B., et al. (2002). Transgenic production of epoxy fatty acids by expression of a cytochrome p450 enzyme from Euphorbia lagascae seed. Plant Physiology 128(2), 615-24.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Genus is monotypic.

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