The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Arevalo, E., Y. Zhu, J. M. Carpenter and J. E. Strassmann 2004. The phylogeny of the social wasp subfamily Polistinae: evi- dence from microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters. BioMed Central Evolutionary Biology 4: 8.
  • Carpenter, J. M. 1991. Phylogenetic relationships and the origin of social behavior in the Vespidae. Pp. 7–32 in: K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews (eds.), Social Biology of Wasps. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
  • J. M. Carpenter. 1996. Distributional checklist of species of the genus Polistes (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae, Polistini). American Museum Novitates 3188:1-39
  • Pickett, K. M. and J. M. Carpenter. 2010. Simultaneous analysis and the origins of sociality in the Vespidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 68(1): 3–33.
  • Wenzel, J. W. 1991. Evolution of nest architecture in social vespids. Pp. 480–519 in: K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews (eds.), The Social Biology of Wasps. Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
  • Wenzel, J.W. and J.M. Carpenter 1994. Comparing methods: Adaptive traits and tests of adaptation. Pp. 79–101 in: P. Eggleton and R. I. Vane-Wright (eds.), Phylogenetics and Ecology. Academic Press, London.


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