The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Calisher, C. H., M. C. Horzinek, M. A. Mayo, H. W. Ackermann, and J. Maniloff. 1995. Sequence analyses and a unifying system of virus taxonomy - consensus via consent. Archives of Virology 140 (11):2093-2099.
  • Cann, Alan. 2004 October 9. Virus structure. Leicester, UK: University of Leicester.
  • Fauquet, C. M., M. A. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger, and L. A. Ball (Eds.). 2005. Virus Taxonomy. Elsevier, San Diego.
  • Fields, B. N., D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley (eds.) 1996. Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa.
  • Gibbs, A. J. 2000. Virus nomenclature descending into chaos. Archives of Virology 145:1505-1507.
  • Hendrix, R. W. 1999. The long evolutionary reach of viruses. Current Biology 9:R914-R917.
  • Hendrix, R. W., J. G. Lawrence, G. F. Hatfull, and S. Casjens. 2000. The origins and ongoing evolution of viruses. Trends in Microbiology 8:504-508.
  • Hendrix, R. W., M. C. M. Smith, R. N. Burns, M. E. Ford, and G. F. Hatfull. 1999. Evolutionary relationships among diverse bacteriophages and prophages: all the world's a phage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 96:2192-2197.
  • Iyer, L. M., L. Aravind, and E. V. Koonin. 2001. Common Origin of Four Diverse Families of Large Eukaryotic DNA Viruses. Journal of Virology 75(23):11720-11734.
  • Lawrence, J. G., G. F. Hatfull, and R. W. Hendrix. 2002. Imbroglios of viral taxonomy: Genetic exchange and failings of phenetic approaches. Journal of Bacteriology 184(17):4891-4905.
  • Lovisolo, O., R. Hull, and O. Rösler. 2003. Coevolution of viruses with hosts and vectors and possible paleontology. Advances in Virus Research 62:325-379.
  • McCormack, G. P. and J. P. Clewley. 2002. The application of molecular phylogenetics to the analysis of viral genome diversity and evolution. Reviews in Medical Virology 12(4):221-238.
  • Mindell, D. P., J. S. Rest, and L. P. Villarreal. 2004. Viruses and the tree of life. Pp. 107-118 in Cracraft, J. and M. J. Donoghue (eds.), Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Rice, G., L. Tang, K. Stedman, F. Roberto, J. Spuhler, E. Gillitzer, J. E. Johnson, T. Douglas, and M. Young. 2004. The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a double-stranded DNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 101(20):7716-7720.
  • Tidona, C. A. and G. Darai. 2000. Iridovirus homologues of cellular genes -- implications for the molecular evolution of large DNA viruses. Virus Genes 21:77-81.
  • Villarreal, L. P. 2005. Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press. Washington DC.
  • Villarreal, L. P. and V. R. DeFilippis. 2000. A hypothesis for DNA viruses as the origin of eukaryotic replication proteins. Journal of Virology 74:7079-7084.
  • Ward, C. W. 1993. Progress towards a higher taxonomy of viruses. Research in Virology 144(6):419-453.
  • WoRMS (2015). Viruses. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Zanotto, P. M. D., M. J. Gibbs, E. A. Gould, and E. C. Holmes. 1996. A reevaluation of the higher taxonomy of viruses based on RNA polymerases. Journal of Virology 70(9):6083-6096.
  • van Regenmortel, M. H. V. 2004. Viruses are real, virus species are man-made, taxonomic constructions. Archives of Virology 148(12):2481-2488.
  • van Regenmortel, M. H. V. and B. W. J. Mahy. 2004. Emerging issues in virus taxonomy. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(1):8-13.
  • van Regenmortel, M. H. V., C. M. Fauquet, D. H. L. Bishop, E. B. Carstens, M. K. Estes, S. M. Lemon, J. Maniloff, M. A. Mayo, D. J. McGeoch, C. R. Pringle, and R. B. Wickner (eds.) 2000. Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • van Regenmortel, M. H. V., M. A. Mayo, C. M. Fauquet, and J. Maniloff. 2000. Virus nomenclature: consensus versus chaos. Archives of Virology 145(10):2227-2232.


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