The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Blieck, A. (1992). At the origin of chordates; Géobios, 25, 101-113.
  • Forey, P. L. (1984). Yet more reflections on agnathan-gnathostome relationships. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 4, 330-343.
  • Forey, P. L., and Janvier, P. (1993). Agnathans and the origin of jawed vertebrates. Nature, 361, 129-134.
  • Forey, P. L., and Janvier, P. (1994). Evolution of the early vertebrates. American Scientist, 82, 554-565.
  • Gagnier, P. Y. (1993a). Sacabambaspis janvieri, Vertébré ordovicien de Bolivie. 1, Analyse morphologique. Annales de Paléontologie, 79, 19-69.
  • Gans, C. (1989). Stages in the origin of vertebrates: analysis by means of scenarios. Biological Reviews, 64, 221-268.
  • Gans, C. (1993). Evolutionary origin of the vertebrate skull. In The skull (ed. J. Hanken and B. K. Hall), Vol. 2, pp. 1-35. The University of Chicago Press.
  • Gans, C. and Northcutt, R.G. (1983). Neural crest and the origin of vertebrates: A new head. Science, 220, 268-274.
  • Gee, H. (1996). Before the backbone. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Hardisty, M. W. (1982). Lampreys and hagfishes: Analysis of cyclostome relationships. In The Biology of Lampreys, (ed. M. W. Hardisty and I. C. Potter), Vol.4B, pp. 165-259. Academic Press, London.
  • Janvier, P. (1981). The phylogeny of the Craniata, with particular reference to the significance of fossil 'agnathans'. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 1, 121-159.
  • Janvier, P. (1993). Patterns of diversity in the skull of jawless fishes. In The skull (ed. J. Hanken and B. K. Hall), Vol. 2, pp. 131-188. The University of Chicago Press.
  • Janvier, P. (1996a). The dawn of the vertebrates: characters versus common ascent in current vertebrate phylogenies. Palaeontology, 39, 259-287.
  • Janvier, P. (1996b). Early vertebrates. Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics, 33, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Jefferies, R. P. S.(1986). The ancestry of the vertebrates. British Museum (Natural History), London.
  • Løvtrup, S. (1977). The Phylogeny of Vertebrata. Wiley, New York.
  • Maisey, J. G. (1986). Heads and tails: a chordate phylogeny. Cladistics, 2, 201-256.
  • Maisey, J. G. (1988). Phylogeny of Early vertebrate skeletal induction and ossification pattern. Evolutionary Biology, 22, 1-36.
  • Moy-Thomas, J. A. and Miles, R. S. (1971). Palaeozoic Fishes, 2nd edn, extensively revised by R. S. Miles. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • Nelson, G. J. (1969). Gill arches and the phylogeny of fishes, with notes on the classification of vertebrates. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 141, 475-552.
  • Nelson, G. J. (1989). Phylogeny of major fish groups. In The hierarchy of life (ed. B. Fernholm, K. Bremer, and H. Jörnvall), pp. 325-336, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.
  • Northcutt, R.G. and Gans, C. (1983). The genesis of neural crest and epidermal placodes: a reinterpretation of vertebrate origins. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 58, 1-28.
  • Schaeffer, B. and Thomson, K. S. (1980). Reflections on agnathan-gnathostome relationships. In Aspects of vertebrate life (ed. L. L. Jacobs), pp. 19-33. Museum of Northern Arizona Press, Flagstaff.
  • Yalden, D. W. (1985). Feeding mechanisms as evidence for cyclostome monophyly. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 84, 291-300.


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