Overview

Brief Summary

European Mole Cricket (Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa)

Identification: This is the only species of Gryllotalpa known from eastern United States. Length, 36-46 mm.

Habitat: Moist, loose soils.

Season: Adults are present at all times of year. Calling and mating probably occur in May and June. In Spain, this species has a two-year life cycle, spending the first winter as a juvenile and the next as an adult. Eggs are laid in spring.

Song at 25°C: Low-pitched trill at 60 p/s issuing from several irregular openings in the ground (Bennet-Clark, France).

Similar species: Neocurtilla hexadactyla is less than 30 mm; hind tibia unarmed except at apex.

Remarks: This cricket is widespread in Europe and was evidently imported into the United States in shipments of ornamental plants. It reached pest proportions at a nursery in Rutherford, N.J., in 1915–1918, and was collected in nearby Wallington as recently as 1960. Other U. S. records are from Nantucket, Mass., Montgomery, N.Y., and Belle Glade, Fla., and may not represent established populations.

More information: family Gryllotalpidae, genus Gryllotalpa

Reference: Weiss 1915, Weiss & Dickerson 1918.

  • Weiss HB. 1915. Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa Linn the European mole cricket in New Jersey. J. Econ. Entomol. 8: 500-501.
  • Weiss HB, Dickerson EL. 1918. The European mole cricket Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa L., an introduced insect pest. J. NY Entomol. Soc. 24: 18-23.
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Biology

Eggs are laid in underground chambers from early spring to the end of July. These are tended by the female until they hatch two to four weeks later. Nymphs begin to mature from the following spring onwards; but some may not mature until their third spring. Adults and nymphs can be found throughout the year in extensive tunnel systems that may reach a depth of over one metre. Mole crickets are omnivorous, feeding on a range of soil invertebrates and plant roots; often leaving neat circular holes through the roots of tuberous plants. Males occasionally produce a soft, but far-carrying 'churring' song from within a specially constructed chamber in the burrow system, which acts as an amplifier for the song, which is likely to be used for attracting females. The song is typically produced on warm balmy evenings in early spring between dusk and dawn, and it is similar to the song of the nightjar Caprimulgus europeaeus.
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Description

This is our largest native orthopteran and one of our most impressive and unusual looking insects. The scientific name derives from the Latin 'gryllus' meaning cricket and 'talpa', mole, and refers to its similarity to a mole in both looks and subterranean habits. The body is brown in colour and covered with fine velvety hairs, and the forelegs are greatly modified for digging. Only the adult stages are winged, and flight is said to be clumsy, directionless and only performed on rare occasions at night. Males can be distinguished from the females by the open vein area in the forewing known as the 'harp', females lack the external ovipositor of other crickets.
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Distribution

Range

The mole cricket occurs throughout Europe, except Norway and Finland, through to western Asia and North Africa. Historically in Great Britain it has been recorded from most counties. Recent records have come from Dorset, Bedfordshire, Cheshire and Essex. There are still strong populations in Guernsey, Channel Islands.
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Ecology

Habitat

Ideal habitat appears to be short, thin swards on sandy loam or peaty soils with a fluctuating water table or seepage line and areas of disturbed or cultivated ground.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

Status

Classified as Endangered in the UK, and protected under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. There have been only four confirmed records of the mole cricket in Great Britain between 1970 and 2001.
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Threats

Once widespread throughout Great Britain, the mole cricket may now be close to extinction. Reasons for this dramatic decline include changes in agricultural practices and the widespread use of pesticides, drainage of wetlands and reduction of grazing or conversion to silage on damp meadows. Sites in Surrey and Hampshire were destroyed through building development.
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Management

Conservation

The mole cricket was identified as a priority for conservation under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP). The Action Plan aims to establish 20 self-sustaining populations in the former range by 2005 and establish breeding colonies in captivity. Work as part of the English Nature Species Recovery Programme has appealed for the public to report sightings of the mole cricket, and a captive rearing programme has been in operation since 1996. The Natural History Museum is the lead partner for the conservation of this species, with English Nature. If you see a mole cricket in the UK please contact the Mole Cricket Working Group at the address below. Please provide the following information: Circumstances of the discovery, time of year, location of sighting, habitat present and what has happened to the insect now; if possible take a photograph for confirmation of the record.
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Wikipedia

Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa

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Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa, commonly known as the European mole cricket is found in Europe, Asia, Australia and Africa. It has also been introduced to the eastern United States. The scientific name is derived from the Latin 'gryllus' meaning a cricket and 'talpa', a mole, and is descriptive because of the fine dense fur by which it is covered and its subterranean habits.[1]

Contents

Description

The body length is about 40 millimetres in males and 45 millimetres in females. The cricket is dark brown with a silky shimmer and yellowish underside and is covered with fine velvety hairs. The forelegs are powerful and modified for digging. The elytra are half the length of the abdomen and the wings are transparent and netted with veins. They are folded into pleats and seldom used as the cricket normally remains below the ground.[2] The males can be distinguished from the females by the open vein area in the forewing known as the 'harp' while the females lack the external ovipositor that is possessed by other crickets.[1]

Range and habitat

This mole cricket occurs throughout Europe, except Scandinavia, tropical and subtropical Asia, Japan, Korea, Australia and Africa. Favoured habitats include damp rich soils, flood plains, reservoir edges, irrigated and well-fertilized fields and vegetable gardens.[2]

Biology

The female cricket lays 100 to 350 eggs in an underground chamber in the spring. They hatch ten to twenty days later and she guards them for another two to three weeks. The nymphs moult six times and take from one to three years to reach maturity. Adults and nymphs live underground throughout the year in extensive tunnel systems that may reach a depth of over a metre in the winter. They are omnivorous, feeding on roots, tubers and rhizomes and a range of soil invertebrates. They often leave neat circular holes in tuberous plants. The males occasionally produce a soft, 'churring' song from within a specially constructed chamber in the burrow system. This acts to amplify the song which is believed to be used for attracting females. The sounds are typically produced on warm mild evenings in early spring and they are similar to the song of the nightjar, Caprimulgus europeaeus.[1] Natural enemies include rooks, starlings and other birds, shrews, moles, ants, ground beetles, nematodes and mites. During winters interrupted by thaws, fungal diseases may cause mass deaths.[2]

Status

In the United Kingdom this species is considered endangered as there have been only four confirmed sightings between 1970 and 2001.[1] It used to occur in 33 vice-counties, mainly across southern England but also in South Wales, western Scotland and Northern Ireland. Its range has contracted and it may now be extinct. There is an action plan that aims to maintain any surviving colonies, establish a captive breeding programme and establish self-sustaining colonies throughout its former range.[3]

Economic significance

This cricket feeds on a wide range of crops and disturbs the soil with its burrowing activities. In countries where it is abundant it is considered a pest as it damages cereals, legumes, perennial grasses, potatoes, vegetable crops, beet, sunflower, tobacco, hemp, flax and strawberry. It also is troublesome in nurseries where young plants may be killed, and damages the roots of vines, fruit and other trees. Control measures may include deep autumn plowing, treatments of the soil between rows of crops, trapping during the winter, pesticides, poison baits and soil fumigation.[2]

References

  • Haes, E. C. M & Marshall, J. A. (1988) Grasshoppers and Allied Insects of Great Britain and Ireland. Harley Books, Colchester.
  • Haes, E. C. M. & Harding, P. T. (1997) Atlas of grasshoppers, crickets and allied insects in Britain and Ireland. HMSO, London
  • Biodiversity: The UK Steering Group Report. (1995) Volume 2: Action Plans. HMSO, London.
  • Pinchen, B. J. (in press). The Mole Cricket - From beyond the Theatre.
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