Overview

Comprehensive Description

Synonyms

Pseudoceros bedfordi Laidlaw, 1903; Pseudoceros micronesianus Hyman, 1955

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Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Type material location

The location of the type material is unknown but there is a whole mount and a set of serial histological sections of this species deposited at the Queensland Museum in Brisbane, Australia.

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Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Distribution

Heron Island (off south reef), Queensland Australia
Collection date: Apr 28, 1989
Depth: 7-10 m
Substrate: reef slope
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef slope. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Heron Island (off south reef), Queensland Australia
Collection date: Jun 16, 1991
Depth: 7-10 m
Substrate: reef slope
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef slope. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Heron Island (off south reef), Queensland Australia
Collection date: Jun 19, 1991
Depth: 7-10 m
Substrate: reef slope
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef slope. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Heron Island (off south reef), Queensland Australia
Collection date: Jun 26, 1991
Depth: 7-10 m
Substrate: reef slope
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef slope. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Heron Island (off south reef), Queensland Australia
Collection date: Jan 22, 1992
Depth: 7-10 m
Substrate: reef slope
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef slope. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Heron Island (off south reef), Queensland Australia
Collection date: Jan 27, 1992
Depth: 7-10 m
Substrate: reef slope
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef slope. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Heron Island (off south reef), Queensland Australia
Collection date: Jan 31, 1992
Depth: 7-10 m
Substrate: reef slope
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef slope. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Heron Island (off south reef), Queensland Australia
Collection date: Feb 5, 1992
Depth: 7-10 m
Substrate: reef slope
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef slope. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Heron Island (off south reef), Queensland Australia
Collection date: Aug 8, 1992
Depth: 7-10 m
Substrate: reef slope
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef slope. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Heron Island (off south reef), Queensland Australia
Collection date: Sep 3, 1992
Depth: 7-10 m
Substrate: reef slope
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef slope. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Heron Island (off south reef), Queensland Australia
Collection date: Feb 5, 1993
Depth: 7-10 m
Substrate: reef slope
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef slope. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Madang reef, eastern Papua New Guinea
Collection date: Jun 3, 1992
Depth: 4 m
Substrate: reef slope rubble
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef slope. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Hansa Bay, Laing Island, Papua New Guinea
Collection date: Jun 9, 1992
Depth: 1 m
Substrate: reef flat
Comments: Collected by SCBA from reef flat. Found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope. Common from Heron Island; rare from Madang and Laing Island.

Enewetak (Eniwetak, Fred, Eniwetok, Privilege, Eniwetakku-to, Eniuetakku), Marshall Islands, Micronesia
Collection date: prior to 1997
Comments: coll. S. Johnson, no date.

Manado (Menado), Sulawesi, Indonesia
Collection date: Jun 1994
Comments: coll. C. Anderson.

Coral Bay, Western Australia, Australia
Collection date: May 6, 1996
Depth: 6 m
Comments: under rubble, south Coral Bay, night.

Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia
Collection date: Apr 7, 1995
Depth: 2 m
Comments: under rubble, night, Lizard Island Lagoon.

Koror (Korror, Kororu To, Koreor, Goror, Goreor, Corrora, Corror, Corra, Corer, Oreor) Islands, Republic of Palau
Collection date: 1944 or earlier

Mindanao, Philippines
Collection date: 1944 or earlier

Pulau Belitung (Billiton, Belitong, Belitoeng), Indonesia
Collection date: 1944 or earlier
Comments: west to Billiton.

Singapore Island, Republic of Singapore
Collection date: 1944 or earlier
Comments: west to Billiton.
  • Kato K. 1944.   . Polycladida of Japan. J Sigenkagaku Kenkyusyo l: 257-318.
  • Newman LJ, Cannon LRG. 1994.   . Pseudoceros and Pseudobiceros (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida, Pseudocerotidae) form eastern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 37(1):205-266.
  • Newman LJ, Cannon LRG. 1997.  abstract/note. Nine new species of Pseudobiceros (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida) from the Indo-Pacific. Raffles Bull Zoology. 45: 341-368.
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© National Science Foundation - Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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This species has been reported for Heron Island in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, Madang and Laing Island in Papua New Guinea, and has been also reported for Singapore, Philippines, and Micronesia.

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Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Physical Description

Morphology

External anatomy: The background color varies from brown to black with numerous compacted yellow dots over the entire dorsal surface. Numerous transverse pink streaks outlined by black variable in shape. The margin is black with white dots. The ventral side is pink with a black marginal band. The pseudotentacles are formed by the folds of the anterior margin and are pointed ear-like with few pseudotentacular eyes. Two elongated clusters of cerebral eyes close to each other as one single cluster of about 100 eyespots. A small and narrow pharynx with simple folds. Two male pores closed together and the sucker is well separated from gonopores.
Internal anatomy: The male complex consists of two male gonopores, each one leading to an independent male system. Each male systems consists of unbranched vas deferens, a round seminal vesicle connected to a long and coiled ejaculatory duct, a large spherical prostatic vesicle and an extremely long and narrow stylet housed in a shallow and wide antrum. There is a single female system with a shallow antrum and the vagina is surrounded by the cement glands.

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Diagnostic Description

Related literature

Hyman, L.H. (1955) Some polyclad flatworms from Polynesia and Micronesia. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 105: 65-82.

Newman, L.J. & Cannon, L.R.G. (1994) Pseudoceros and Pseudobiceros (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida, Pseudocerotidae) from Eastern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 37: 205–266.

Faubel, A. (1984) The Polycladida, Turbellaria. Proposal and establishment of a new system. Part II. The Cotylea. Mitteilungen des hamburgischen zoologischen Museums und Instituts, 81: 189–259.

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Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Taxonomic Remarks

This species was originally described by Laidlaw (1903) as Pseudoceros bedfordi but after a revision of the cotyleans, Faubel (1984) made the new combination Pseudobiceros bedfordi based on the presence of two male gonopores. Newman & Cannon (1994) included the species into the group 6, characterized by transverse streaks and stripes, according to the categorization, established by the same authors, based on the color and color pattern. Within this group, P. dendrictus and P. flavolineatus are similar to P. bedfordi. However, P. dendrictus has a yellow and brown background, and P. flavolineatus has narrow lines. Pseudoceros micronesianus was described by Hyman (1955) from a damage preserved specimen, but her description completely agrees with the color and color pattern of the alive specimen seen by Newman & Cannon (1994). The authors, based

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The diagnostic characters for this species are the color and color patter. A brown to black background with yellow dots over the entire dorsal surface, and several transverse pink streaks outlined by black.

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Ecology

Habitat

This species has been found under boulders at the reef crest and under ledges on the reef slope

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Wikipedia

Pseudobiceros bedfordi

Pseudobiceros bedfordi, (common names Persian carpet flatworm[1] and Bedford's flatworm) is a species of flatworm in the family Pseudocerotidae.[2]

This species has two penises, which it uses to fence, in an attempt to inject sperm into its opponent in order to fertilize it, while avoiding being fertilized itself.[3]

Contents

Description[edit]

Pseudobiceros bedfordi is a large polyclad flatworm approximately 8-10 cm in length. It has a distinctive pattern consisting of a brown to black background, with multiple transverse, bilateral pink lines around thousands of tightly spaced, bright yellow spots,[4] pink undulating spots with stripes on the sides of the body.[5]

The edges of the body are usually ruffled. The underside of Pseudobiceros bedfordi is pale pink. The front of the body has a pair of erect pseudotentacles.[1]

Distribution[edit]

This species is found in Indonesia, Malaysia, Kenya, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Thailand, Australia, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Myanmar, and Palau.[6]

Habitat[edit]

Pseudobiceros bedfordi is found on coral rubble[4] and ledges in back reefs, coastal bays, and in lagoons.[5]

Behaviour[edit]

This worm is fast moving, and is able to swim by undulating its body.[4]

Diet[edit]

Pseudobiceros bedfordi feeds on ascidians and on crustaceans that are small enough to swallow.[5]

Reproduction[edit]

Two specimens of Pseudobiceros bedfordi about to engage in penis fencing

Like all flatworms in the genus Pseudobiceros, they are hermaphroditic and have two penises. During mating, they fence with one another using their penises attempting to stab and inject sperm in their opponent, while avoiding being fertilized themselves. They are able to inseminate their opponent by injecting their sperm into any region of the other's body they are able to penetrate. After successfully injecting the other, the sperm streams through their partner's body on their way to ovaries, where they will fertilize the eggs. The stream is visible through the body tissue of the worm, appearing as pale streaks like lightning jags.[7][8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Persian carpet flatworms (Pseudobiceros bedfordi) on the Shores of Singapore
  2. ^ WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - Pseudobiceros bedfordi (Laidlaw, 1903)
  3. ^ Arnqvist, Göran; Rowe, Locke (2005), Sexual conflict, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-12218-2, p. 185
  4. ^ a b c Richmond, Matthew D. (1997), A Field Guide to the Seashores of Eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands, IDA/Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC, ISBN 91-630-4594-X, p. 154
  5. ^ a b c Pseudobiceros bedfordi, Pseudobiceros bedfordi
  6. ^ Pseudobiceros bedfordi (Laidlaw, 1903) - Pseudocerotidae » Nudi Pixel
  7. ^ Hermaphrodites duel for manhood, Science News Online. Accessed 14 March 2009.
  8. ^ PLoS Biology: Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Sexes
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