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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Type material location

The holotype is a whole mount of an entire specimen and the paratype is a set of serial histological sections deposited at the Queensland Museum in Brisbane, Australia.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Type material location

The holotype is a whole mount of an entire specimen and the paratype is another whole mount and a set of serial histological sections deposited at the Queensland Museum in Brisbane, Australia.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Type material location

The holotype is a whole mount of an entire specimen, and the paratype is a set of serial histological sections deposited at the Queensland Museum in Brisbane, Australia.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Distribution

Madang reef, eastern Papua New Guinea
Collection date: Jun 4, 1992
Kind: default type
Depth: 3 m
Comments: under rubble, T. Gosliner.
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© National Science Foundation - Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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Heron Island (off south reef), Queensland Australia
Collection date: Feb 24, 1992
Kind: default type
Depth: 8 m
Comments: reef slope, night.
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© National Science Foundation - Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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Koror (Korror, Kororu To, Koreor, Goror, Goreor, Corrora, Corror, Corra, Corer, Oreor) Islands, Republic of Palau
Collection date: Dec 3, 1996
Kind: default type
Depth: 1 m
Comments: under algal mats, sea grass beds, Ngermutidech. coll. by L. Sharron.
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© National Science Foundation - Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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Madang reef, eastern Papua New Guinea
Collection date: Apr 6, 1994
Kind: default type
Depth: 3 m
Comments: under rubble, north Madang. coll. H.&C. Peterken.

Madang reef, eastern Papua New Guinea
Collection date: Mar 22, 1994
Kind: default type
Depth: 3 m
Comments: under rubble, north Madang. coll. H.&C. Peterken.

Madang reef, eastern Papua New Guinea
Collection date: Mar 23, 1994
Kind: default type
Depth: 3 m
Comments: under rubble, north Madang. coll. H.&C. Peterken.
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© National Science Foundation - Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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Madang reef, eastern Papua New Guinea
Collection date: Jun 29, 1992
Kind: type locality
Depth: 3 m
Substrate: reef crest
Comments: collected by SCUBA, reef crest. Found under rubble at reef crest. Rare from Madang.

Madang reef, eastern Papua New Guinea
Collection date: Jun 16, 1992
Kind: type locality
Depth: 3 m
Substrate: reef crest
Comments: collected by SCUBA, reef crest. Found under rubble at reef crest. Rare from Madang.
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© National Science Foundation - Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

Source: Turbellarian Taxonomic Database

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This species has been reported for Koror, Palau, Micronesia.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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This species has been reported for Madang, Papua New Guinea.

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Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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This species has been reported for Madang in Papua New Guinea.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Physical Description

Morphology

External anatomy: The background is opaque green-grey, lighter medially and towards the margin with an extremely narrow orange rim. The tips of the pseudotentacles are orange. The ventral side is light green with a wide dark grey band and a lighter green and orange rim. The pseudotentacles are pointed and ear-like. Pharynx with simple folds.
Internal anatomy: The male complex consists of two male gonopores, each one leading to an independent male system. Each system consists of branched vas deferens, a rounded oblong seminal vesicle, an elongate oval prostatic vesicle and a small stylet housed in a wide and deep antrum. There is single female system with a shallow antrum, and a short vagina surrounded by the cement glands.

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Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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External anatomy: Small body with a transparent background, mottled with brown and grey with some white spots grouped in round clusters. A wide white margin and a narrow bright yellow rim. A white triangle is formed between the pseudotentacles. The ventral side is transparent pink-red with the same triangle. The pseudotentacles are long, pointed, and ear-like with small groups of pseudotentacular eyes. A small cerebral cluster of about 20 to 30 eyespots located in a clear round area. Pharynx with simple folds. Two male pores well separated.
Internal anatomy: The male complex consists of two male gonopores, each one leading to an independent male system. Each system consists of unbranched vas deferens, rounded seminal and prostatic vesicles, and a short stylet housed in a deep and wide antrum. There is single female system with a shallow and extremely wide antrum, and a narrow vagina surrounded by the cement glands.

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Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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External anatomy: Black velvety background with two narrow marginal bands, the inner one is white and the outer is yellow. Between the pseudotentacles there is a grey-white triangle, extending to the cerebral eyespots. The ventral side is grey with the same marginal bands. The pseudotentacles are small, square and slight ruffled with numerous eyes close to the margin. The cerebral cluster consists of about 30 eyespots. Presence of a ruffled pharynx with simple folds, and two male gonopores close to each other and well separated from the sucker.
Internal anatomy: The male complex consists of two male gonopores, each one leading to an independent male system. Each system consist of branched vas deferens, an elongated seminal vesicle connected to a short and not coiled ejaculatory duct, a round and extremely small prostatic vesicle and a short stylet housed in a shallow antrum. The testes form a network throughout the body. There is single female system with a shallow antrum and a short vagina surrounded by the cement glands.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Diagnostic Description

Related literature

Newman, L.J. & Cannon, L.R.G. (1997) Nine New Species of Pseudobiceros (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida) from the Indo-Pacific. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 45(2): 341–368.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Taxonomic Remarks

This species was included into the group 1, characterized by a distinct marginal bands, according to the categorization based on the color and color pattern made by Newman & Cannon (1994), and modified for the same authors (Newman & Cannon, 1997). Within this group, most of the species are velvety black with marginal bands. However, P. sharroni is the only member of the group with grey-green background.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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The diagnostic character for this species is the grey-green background with an extremely narrow orange rim.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Related literature

Newman, L.J. & Cannon, L.R.G. (1997) Nine New Species of Pseudobiceros (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida) from the Indo-Pacific. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 45(2): 341–368.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Taxonomic Remarks

This species was included into the group 3, characterized by spots and dots, according to the categorization based on the color and color pattern made by Newman & Cannon (1994), and modified for the same authors (Newman & Cannon, 1997). In this group, no other species is brown with white dots.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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The diagnostic character for this species is the mottled brown and white background with a wide white marginal band and a yellow rim.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Related literature

Newman, L.J. & Cannon, L.R.G. (1994) Pseudoceros and Pseudobiceros (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida, Pseudocerotidae) from Eastern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 37: 205–266.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Taxonomic Remarks

This species was included into the group 2, characterized by the presence of marginal bands, according to the categorization based on the color and color pattern made by Newman & Cannon (1994). In this group most of the species have a black background, but P. uniarborensis and P. hancockanus, are the only ones with similar colored marginal bands.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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The diagnostic character for this species is the black background with inner white and outer yellow narrow marginal bands.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Type Information

Holotype for Pseudobiceros harrisi Bolanos et al., 2007
Catalog Number: USNM 1104642
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Slide
Year Collected: 2005
Locality: Bocas del Toro, Isla de los Pajaros, Panama, Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Holotype: Bolanos, D. M., et al. 2007. Five new species of cotylean flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida) from the wider Caribbean. Zootaxa. 1650: 1-23.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 1 specimen in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.5 - 1.5
  Temperature range (°C): 24.146 - 24.146
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.166 - 0.166
  Salinity (PPS): 35.418 - 35.418
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.889 - 4.889
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.142 - 0.142
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.345 - 1.345
 
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1.5 - 1.5
  Temperature range (°C): 24.146 - 24.146
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.166 - 0.166
  Salinity (PPS): 35.418 - 35.418
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.889 - 4.889
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.142 - 0.142
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.345 - 1.345
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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This is a common species found in shallow waters under algal mats.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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This is a rare species that has been found in association with similar colored ascidians under coral rubble.

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© Bolanos, Marcela

Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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This species is very common under coral rubble at the reef crest.

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Source: A catalogue of tropical polyclad flatworms

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Wikipedia

Pseudobiceros

Pseudobiceros!<-- This template has to be "warmed up" before it can be used, for some reason -->

Pseudobiceros is a genus of flatworms. Like all flatworms, Pseudobiceros are hermaphrodites. This particular species engages in penis fencing. When the "winner" touches its penis to the 'skin' of the other, insemination occurs, and the "loser" has to bear the burden of motherhood.[1][2]

Species

Species include:[3]

References

  1. ^ Michiels, N.K., and L.J. Newman. (1998). Sex and violence in hermaphrodites. Nature 391:647.
  2. ^ Hermaphrodites duel for manhood, Science News Online. Accessed 14 March 2009.
  3. ^ http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=367782
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