Overview

Brief Summary

Bertiella cestodes (tapeworms) normally parasitize non-human primates, but under some circumstances they can infect humans. Most reported cases have involved B. mucronata or B. studeri and have been in children who have had some contact with non-human primates.

The life cycle of Bertiella species is not completely understood. Bertiella are believed to have two-host life cycles, with an arthropod intermediate host (usually a mite, likely an oribatid mite) and a vertebrate definitive host (usually non-human primates for the species implicated in human infections). Bertiella studeri (which is found in Africa and Asia) usually infects monkeys in the genera Anthropithecus, Cercopithecus, Cynomologus, and Macaca. Bertiella mucronata (which is found in South America and Cuba) usually infects monkeys in the genera Callicebus and Alouatta.

Bertiella eggs and proglottids (the repeated hermaphroditic reproductive segments of tapeworms) are passed in the feces of the definitive host. Oncospheres (which contain the tapeworm larvae) are ingested by the arthropod intermediate host and within this host the oncospheres develop into cysticercoid larvae. The definitive hosts become infected when they ingest arthropod intermediate hosts infected with cysticercoids. Adult Bertiella reside in the small intestine of the definitive host, where they attach to the mucosa with the aid of an unarmed scolex (the anterior end of a tapeworm's head). Humans can occasionally serve as definitive hosts, usually after accidentally ingesting infected mites.

Human infections with B. mucronata have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, and Saint Kitts. Human infections with B. studeri have been reported from Borneo, India, Java, Malaysia, Mauritius, Singapore, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Yemen. Imported cases have been reported from the United States, Australia, and Lithuania.

(Source: Centers for Disease Control Parasites and Health Website)

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Distribution

Human infections with B. mucronata have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, and Saint Kitts. Human infections with B. studeri have been reported from Borneo, India, Java, Malaysia, Mauritius, Singapore, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Yemen. Imported cases have been reported from the United States, Australia, and Lithuania.

(Centers for Disease Control Parasites and Health Website)

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

The life cycle of Bertiella species is not completely understood. Bertiella are believed to have two-host life cycles, with an arthropod intermediate host (usually a mite, likely an oribatid mite) and a vertebrate definitive host (usually non-human primates for the species implicated in human infections). Bertiella studeri (which is found in Africa and Asia) usually infects monkeys in the genera Anthropithecus, Cercopithecus, Cynomologus, and Macaca. Bertiella mucronata (which is found in South America and Cuba) usually infects monkeys in the genera Callicebus and Alouatta.

Bertiella eggs and proglottids (the repeated hermaphroditic reproductive segments of tapeworms) are passed in the feces of the definitive host. Oncospheres (which contain the tapeworm larvae) are ingested by the arthropod intermediate host and within this host the oncospheres develop into cysticercoid larvae. The definitive hosts become infected when they ingest arthropod intermediate hosts infected with cysticercoids. Adult Bertiella reside in the small intestine of the definitive host, where they attach to the mucosa with the aid of an unarmed scolex (the anterior end of a tapeworm's head). Humans can occasionally serve as definitive hosts, usually after accidentally ingesting infected mites.

(Centers for Disease Control Parasites and Health Website)

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© Leo Shapiro

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Bertiella cestodes (tapeworms) normally parasitize non-human primates, but under some circumstances they can infect humans. Most reported cases have involved B. mucronata or B. studeri and have been in children who have had some contact with non-human primates.

(Centers for Disease Control Parasites and Health Website)

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© Leo Shapiro

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Wikipedia

Bertiella (fungus)

Bertiella is a genus of fungi in the family Teichosporaceae.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM. (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota – 2007". Myconet (The Field Museum, Department of Botany, Chicago, USA) 13: 1–58. 
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Bertiella (tapeworm)

Bertiella is a genus of cestode tapeworm parasites that primarily infects nonhuman primates, rodents and Australian marsupials. Infections by Bertiella are known as bertielliasis. Occasionally, human infections have been documented by one of two species: Bertiella studeri, or Bertiella mucronata. Bertiella transmission is through oribatid mites that are present in the soil of problem areas, and can be easily prevented by avoiding contact with nonhuman primates, rodents and soil in these areas.

Of 29 different Bertiella species, only two can infect humans: Bertiella studeri (majority of human cases), and Bertiella mucronata.

Eggs collected from proglottids of Bertiella studeri, as seen under the microscope (scale bar = 10 μm).

Treatment[edit source | edit]

Albendazole is not effective in treating this condition: praziquantel is the preferred agent.[2]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ "Genus Bertiella Stiles & Hassall, 1902". Australian Faunal Directory. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. October 9, 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2010. 
  2. ^ Furtado AP, Batista Ede J, Gonçalves EC, Silva AM, Melo FT, Giese EG, Santos JN (2012) Human bertielliasis in Amazonia: case report and challenging diagnosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6(6):e1580. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001580
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