Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Dutch (1) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Breeding occurs during the summer months. D. vittatus probably has pelagic larvae. When growth is rapid, it lives for two to three years. Otherwise, the life span may be up to seven years.

D. vittatus lives just below the sediment surface and is often dislodged by wave action. lts large, powerful foot enables it to reburrow immediately and so reduce the danger of predation (Fish & Fish, 1989).
This species is a suspension feeder (Wolff, 1973).

  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Banded wedge shells have a typical serrated edge and are reasonably long. The outer layer of the shell of living organisms, the periostracum, is made up of a brownish-green parchment-like material. This layer usually disappears quickly after death. Hundreds of living and dead banded wedge shells can wash ashore after a frost or an off-shore wind. Live banded wedge shells can also be found after sand nourishments. In southern Europe, banded wedge shells are sold as a delicacy at the market and food stores.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Copyright Ecomare

Source: Ecomare

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Donax vittatus has a roughly wedge-shaped shell up to 3.8 cm long with the umbones close to the posterior end. The outer shell is shiny and white, yellowish, brown or purple, with the colour often running in bands across the shell. The outer surface has numerous, fine concentric ridges and grooves, and fine lines radiating from the umbones. The inner surface is shiny and white, often with areas tinted pale yellow, orange or purple. The margin of the shell is strongly ridged (crenulate).Donax variegatus occurs in similar habitats to Donax vittatus around the south and south-west coasts of Britain but is more regularly oval than Donax vittatus and is distinguished principally by the marginal crenulations which are much finer and feel smooth to the touch. Donax vittatus lives just under the surface of the sediment and is often dislodged by rough seas but the presence of a large, powerful foot enables it to reburrow as soon as disturbance is over and so reduce the dangers of desiccation and predation. If growth is rapid, Donax vittatus can live for two to three years but where growth is slow it may live for up to seven years (Fish & Fish, 1996).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

The distribution area of Donax vittatus is limited to the coastal area of the Belgian part of the North Sea. During both periods the species seems to prefer the western coastal zone. The detailed distribution of Donax vittatus reveals itself best in the 1994-2001 period, when numerous samples were collected in the coastal zone. During this period the species was commonly present from De Panne to Wenduine whereas it was almost absent further to the east. In general, the density remained rather low: up to 40 ind./m2 in the 1976-1986 period and up to 300 ind./m2 in the 1994-2001 period.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

D. vittatus is found exclusively in the southern part of the North Sea, at depths of less than 30 m. It furthermore occurs in low densities in the western part of the Dutch Wadden Sea. Highest densities are found south of the Frisian Front area. The corresponding low biomass in this area indicates that this concerns juvenile specimens. The highest biomasses are found north of Terschelling and west of Texel. Several other studies report the species from the lower shore to a depth of about 20 m, with a more or less regular distribution and only a few specimens per m² (Eisma, 1966; Tebble, 1966; Hayward & Ryland, 1990).
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Slim, somewhat triangular and elongated shell with the top directed to the back. Up to 40 mm long and 16 mm high. The back is somewhat acuminate and truncate, the front is more rounded. The sculpture consists of fine grooves radiating from the top that are crossed by growth lines. The lower edge is very convex and coarsely serrated at the inside, hence the Dutch name “zaagje” (literally: little saw). Living specimens are coloured yellow or light purple. The inside of the shell is often yellow ochre or purple. They live directly under the sea floor. In case of disturbance they are able to burrow exceptionally fast.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Morphology

D. vittatus has a solid, wedge-shaped shell, somewhat triangular in outline. lt is rarely larger than 38 mm. A sculpture of fine concentric grooves and numerous fine radiating striations covers the shell. The inner ventral margin is toothed. The growth stages are clear. The shell is coloured white, yellow, brown or purple, or various shades of these. The interior of the shell is white or stained purple, sometimes tinted yellow or orange (Tebble, 1966; Fish & Fish, 1989; Hayward & Ryland, 1990).
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Donax vittatus tends to prefer fine-grained sediments (median grain size 50-250 µm). However, the chance of finding this species in these sediments is not higher than 20%. The species is absent in sediments with a median grain size exceeding 400 µm. Donax vittatus is found in sediments with a mud content ranging from 0 to 80% without a clear preference for a certain mud content.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

In the Dutch part of the North Sea D. vittatus prefers clean fine sand (cf. Ziegelmeier, 1957).
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 317 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 170 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 37
  Temperature range (°C): 8.897 - 11.964
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.899 - 7.513
  Salinity (PPS): 33.398 - 35.203
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.138 - 6.665
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.336 - 0.626
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.147 - 4.454

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 37

Temperature range (°C): 8.897 - 11.964

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.899 - 7.513

Salinity (PPS): 33.398 - 35.203

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.138 - 6.665

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.336 - 0.626

Silicate (umol/l): 2.147 - 4.454
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

 Occurs intertidally, from mid-shore to depths of around 20 m, burrowing in sandy sediments. It is often abundant on moderately exposed sandy shores and bays.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Donax vittatus

Donax vittatus, or the banded wedge shell, is a species of bivalve mollusc in the order Veneroida. It is found on beaches in north west Europe buried in the sand on the lower shore.

Contents

Description

Empty shell of Donax vittatus.

The shells of Donax vittatus are laterally compressed and grow to 1.3 inches (33 mm) long and 0.6 inches (15 mm) wide. The valves are delicate and glossy and are found in a wide range of colours including white, yellow, brown, pink and violet. The interior is white, often blotched with violet. The valves are asymmetric and wedge shaped, the anterior end being rounded and longer than the obliquely truncated posterior end. They show a fine sculpturing of transverse and longitudinal grooves and the margin is finely serrated. The annual growth rings can be seen and these are often more deeply pigmented than the rest of the shell There may also be pale radial rays. On the inside of the shell, the muscle scars are indistinct and the oval pallial sinus extends to the middle of the valve. The right valve has two cardinal, one posterior and two lateral teeth. The left valve has two cardinal teeth flanked by one lateral tooth on each side. The fringed mantle and the strong muscular foot are mauve or reddish, and the pair of short, separate siphons are orange.[2][3][4]

Distribution

Donax vittatus occurs in the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean, from Norway and the Baltic Sea southwards to Spain and northwest Africa.[3] It burrows in the sand on exposed beaches from the middle shore down to the shallow sublittoral.[2] It is common in suitable habitats round the shores of the British Isles.[4]

Biology

Donax vittatus lives close to the surface of sandy beaches, extending its two siphons to the surface. When the tide is in, water is drawn in through one siphon and expelled through the other. Donax vittatus is a filter feeder and, at the same time that oxygen is being extracted from the water stream by the gills, food particles are captured and passed by cilia to the mouth. If the animal is disturbed or exposed by the scouring action of the waves, it can burrow rapidly. It does this by protruding its foot downwards, enlarging it by pumping blood into it and then using it as an anchor to pull itself deeper into the sand.[2][4] Under water video-recording of Donax vittatus show that it is most active around the time of low water, when the sediment is most disturbed. Individuals were shown to "leap" and to be dragged around on the surface by wave currents before reburying themselves.[5] At this time they are at risk of being eaten by gulls, and evidence that the birds consume large numbers of the shells is provided by the "gobbets" they sometimes leave on the beach, composed of the regurgitated inedible remnants of their meal and in which many broken shells of Donax vittatus can sometimes be found.[6] Donax vittatus is also preyed on by starfish, various gastropod molluscs and fish such as flounders.[7]

Donax vittatus is dioecious, individuals being either male or female. Spawning takes place over the course of the spring and summer. Fertilisation is external and the eggs hatch into veliger larvae which become part of the zooplankton. After about 3 weeks these develop into pediveliger larvae which settle and undergo metamorphosis. The juveniles grow fast and mature within a year.[8]

References

  1. ^ Donax vittatus (da Costa, 1778) World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  2. ^ a b c Barrettt, John; C.M.Yonge (1958). Collins Pocket Guide to the Sea Shore. Collins, London. p. 160. 
  3. ^ a b Donax vittatus Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  4. ^ a b c Banded wedge shell - Donax vittatus Marine Life Information Network. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  5. ^ Ansella, Alan D. (1994). "In situ activity of the sandy beach bivalve Donax vittatus (Bivalvia Donacidae) in relation to potential predation risks". Ethology Ecology & Evolution 6 (1): 43–53. doi:10.1080/08927014.1994.9523007. 
  6. ^ Gulls’ gobbets on Rhossili seashore Jessica's Nature Blog. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  7. ^ Banded Wedge Shell (Donax vittatus) The Seashore. Retrieved 2011-12-12.
  8. ^ Webb, C.M. (1988). "Post-Larval Development of the Tellinacean Bivalves Abra Alba, Tellina Fabula and Donax Vittatus (Mollusca: Bivalvia), With Reference to the Late Larva". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 66: 749–762. doi:10.1017/S0025315400042338. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!