There are records from Turkey and Iran, but according to Gloer and Pesic (2012), these records have been confused with another two newly described species, B. forcarti sp. n. or possibly with Bithynia mazandaranensis sp. n.
It is also introduced into North America. In North America the range now extends from Quebec and Wisconsin to Pennsylvania and New York (Kipp et al. 2013). Originally it was found in Great Lakes Region, first recorded in Lake Michigan in 1871, spreading to Lake Ontario, the Hudson River, and other tributaries and water bodies in the Great Lakes region during the 20th century.
occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: Members of this family are found throughout Europe, Asia, and in Africa, Indonesia, the Philippines and Australia. This species was introduced a long time ago to North America and has spread widely. However, it has been reported in Pleistocene deposits in Chicago so it may already have been in North America at the time of European settlement (Burch 1989).
Habitat and Ecology
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Depth range (m): 0 - 14
Depth range (m): 0 - 14
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Bithynia tentaculata
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
-- end --
Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bithynia tentaculata
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
This species has also been assessed as Least Concern (LC) at the European level, Least Concern (LC) at the level of the 27 member states of the European Union and Least Concern (LC) at the Mediterranean level.
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable
Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
There are relatively few threats to this species apart from major deterioration in water quality, and significant alteration of water courses, flow regimes, and over-frequent dredging. Mouthon (1996) showed that B. tentaculata was relatively insensitive to biodegradable pollution.
Bithynia tentaculata, common names the mud bithynia or common bithynia, or faucet snail is a relatively small species of freshwater snail with gills and an operculum, an aquatic prosobranch gastropod mollusk in the family Bithyniidae.
- Bithynia tentaculata f. codia
- Bithynia tentaculata f. excavata
- Bithynia tentaculata f. gigas
- Bithynia tentaculata f. producta Menke, 1828
The width of the shell is 5–7 mm.
The faucet snail has a shiny pale brown shell, oval in shape, with a relatively large and rounded spire consisting of 5–6 somewhat flattened whorls, no umbilicus, and a very thick lip. The aperture is less than half the height of the shell.
Adult Bithynia tentaculata possess a white, calcareous, tear-drop to oval-shaped operculum with distinct concentric rings. The operculum of juveniles, however, is spirally marked. The operculum (on the back of the foot) is always situated very close to the aperture of the shell. The animal itself has pointed, long tentacles and a simple foot with the right cervical lobe acting as a channel for water.
Distribution: palearctic, including:
- Czech Republic - least concern (LC)
- Germany - common species overall in Germany, but is listed as endangered (gefährdet) in Saxony and in Thuringia
- British Isles: Great Britain and Ireland
Great Lakes Region: Bithynia tentaculata was first recorded in Lake Michigan in 1871, but was probably introduced in 1870. It spread to Lake Ontario by 1879, the Hudson River by 1892, and other tributaries and water bodies in the Finger Lakes region during the 20th century. It was introduced to Lake Erie sometime before 1930. This snail’s range extends in 1992 from Quebec and Wisconsin to Pennsylvania and New York. It has been recorded from Lake Huron, but only a few individuals were found in benthic samples from Saginaw Bay in the 1980s and 1990s.
This snail lives in slow-running freshwater habitat such as low-velocity rivers, and standing-water bodies such as lakes. The species flourishes in calcium-rich waters.
It is commonly found in freshwater ponds, shallow lakes, and canals. This species is found on the substrate in fall and winter (including gravel, sand, clay, mud or undersides of rocks) and on aquatic macrophytes (including milfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum and muskgrass, Chara spp.) in warmer months.  It lives mostly in shoals, but is also found at depths of up to 5 m. Bithynia tentaculata inhabits intertidal zones in the Hudson River But in general, this snail inhabits waters with pH of 6.6–8.4, conductivity of 87–2320 μmhos/cm, Ca2+ of 5–89 ppm, and Na+ of 4–291 ppm. It can potentially survive well in water bodies with high concentrations of K+ and low concentrations of NO3-. In the Saint Lawrence River, it tends to occur in relatively unpolluted, nearshore areas and amongst dreissenid mussel beds.
This species functions as both a scraper and a collector-filterer, grazing on algae on the substrate, as well as using its gills to filter suspended algae from the water column. When filter feeding, algae is sucked in, condensed, and then passed out between the right tentacle and exhalant siphon in pellet-like packages which are then eaten. The ability to filter feed may play a role in allowing populations of the faucet snail to survive at high densities in relatively eutrophic, anthropogenically influenced water bodies. Bithynia tentaculata feeds selectively on food items. The faucet snail is known in Eurasia to feed on black fly larvae.
Bithynia tentaculata is dioecious (it has two separate sexes) and lays its eggs on rocks, wood and shells in organized aggregates arranged in double rows, in clumps of 1–77. Egg-laying occurs from May to July when water temperature is 20°C or higher, and sometimes a second time in October and November by females born early in the year. The density of eggs on the substrate can sometimes reach 155 clumps/m2. Fecundity may reach up to 347 eggs and is greatest for the 2nd year class. Eggs hatch in three weeks to three months, depending on water temperature. Oocytes develop poorly at temperatures of 30 - 34°C. Growth usually does not occur from September to May. The lifespan varies regionally and can be anywhere from 17–39 months.
The faucet snail has the potential to be a good biomonitor for contaminants such as Cd, Zn, and methylmercury (MeHg) because there are good correlations between environmental concentrations and snail tissue concentrations with respect to these toxic compounds.
- As first intermediate host for Prosthogonimus ovatus
- As an intermediate host for Sphaeridiotrema globulus
- As first intermediate hosts and as second intermediate host for Cyanthocotyle bushiensis.
- As second intermediate host for Echinostoma revolutum
- As intermediate host for Syngamus trachea
- Capillariidae, probably Capillaria obsignata
- Bithynia tenataculata is a suspected intermediate host for Leyogonimus polyoon
Other interspecific relationship
Natural dispersal of this snail is known to occur by passive transport in birds.
This article incorporates public domain text from reference.
- Seddon M. B. (2014). "Bithynia tentaculata". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 August 2014.
- Linnaeus C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. 10th edition. - Vermes. Testacea: 700-781. Holmiae. (Salvius).
- Jokinen E. (1992). The Freshwater Snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of New York State. The University of the State of New York, The State Education Department, The New York State Museum, Albany, New York 12230. 112 pp.
- Kipp R. M. & Benson A. (2008). Bithynia tentaculata. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=987 Revision Date: 2/28/2007.
- Mackie G. L., White D. S. & Zdeba T. W. (1980). A guide to freshwater mollusks of the Laurentian Great Lakes with special emphasis on the genus Pisidium. Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, Minnesota 55804. 144 pp.
- Peckarsky B. L., Fraissinet P. R., Penton M. A. & Conklin Jr. D. J. (1993). Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Northeastern North America. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York State. 442 pp.
- Pennak R. (1989). Fresh-water Invertebrates of the United States, 3rd ed. Protozoa to Mollusca. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, New York State. 628 pp.
- Clarke A. H. (1981). The freshwater molluscs of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Canada. 447 pp.
- Beran L. (2009). "The first record of Anisus vorticulus (Troschel, 1834) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Croatia?". Malacologica Bohemoslovaca 8: 70. PDF.
- Juřičková L., Horsák M. & Beran L. (2001). "Check-list of the molluscs (Mollusca) of the Czech Republic". Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 65: 25-40.
- (Czech) Horsák M., Juřičková L., Beran L., Čejka T. & Dvořák L. (2010). "Komentovaný seznam měkkýšů zjištěných ve volné přírodě České a Slovenské republiky. [Annotated list of mollusc species recorded outdoors in the Czech and Slovak Republics]". Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, Suppl. 1: 1-37. PDF.
- (German) Glöer P. & Meier-Brook C. (2003). Süsswassermollusken. DJN, pp. 134, page 106, ISBN 3-923376-02-2
- Bithynia tentaculata www.mollbase.de, Verbreitungsatlas Schleswig-Holstein 1991, accessed 19 October 2008.
- Bithynia tentaculata.
- Mills E. L., Leach J. H., Carlton J. T. & Secor C. L. (1993). "Exotic species in the Great Lakes: a history of biotic crises and anthropogenic introductions". Journal of Great Lakes Research 19(1): 1-54.
- Carr J. F. & Hiltunen J. K. (1965). "Changes in the bottom fauna of western Lake Erie from 1930 to 1961". Limnology and Oceanography 10: 551-569.
- Krieger K. A. (1985). "Snail distribution in Lake Erie, USA, Canada; the influence of anoxia in the southern central basin nearshore zone". Ohio Journal of Science 85(5): 230-244.
- Nalepa T. F., Fanslow D. L., Lansing M. B., Lang G. A., Ford M., Gostenik G. & Hartson D. J. (2002). Abundance, Biomass, and Species Composition of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Populations in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, 1987-1996. NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory and Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystem Research, Michigan, Ann Arbor. 32 pp.
- Vincent B., Rioux H. & Harvey M. (1981). "Factors affecting the structure of epiphytic gastropod communities in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada)". Hydrobiologia 220: 57-71.
- Vaillancourt G. & Lafarriere E. (1983). "Relationship between the quality of the environment and the benthic groupings in the littoral zone of the St. Lawrence River, Canada". Naturaliste Canadien (Quebec) 110(4): 385-396.
- Ricciardi A., Whoriskey F. G. & Rasmussen J. B. (1997). "The role of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in structuring macroinvertebrate communities on hard substrata". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 2596–2608.
- Brendelberger H. (1997). "Contrasting feeding strategies of two freshwater gastropods, Radix peregra (Lymnaeidae) and Bithynia tentaculata (Bithynidae)". Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 140(1): 1-21.
- Pavlichenko V. I. (1977). "The role of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) larvae in destroying black flies in flowing reservoirs of the Zaporozyhe oblast, USSR". Ekologiya (Moscow) 1: 104-105.
- Korotneva N. V. & Dregol’skaya I. N. (1992). "Effect of the elevated temperature in the habitat of fresh water mollusk Bithynia tentaculata L. on its oogenesis". Tsitologiya 34(2): 30-36.
- Desy J. C., Archambault J.-F., Pinel-Alloul B., Hubert J. & Campbell P. G. C. (2000). "Relationships between total mercury in sediments and methyl mercury in the freshwater gastropod prosobranch Bithynia tentaculata in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57(Suppl. 1): 164-173.
- Flessas C., Couillard Y., Pinel-Alloul B., St-Cyr L. & Campbell P. G. C. (2000). "Metal concentrations in two freshwater gastropods (Mollusca) in the St. Lawrence River and relationships with environmental contamination". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57(Suppl. 1): 126-137.
- Mattison R. G., Dunn T. S., Hanna R. E. B., Nizami W. A. & Ali Q. M. (1995). "Population dynamics of freshwater gastropods and epidemiology of their helminth infections with emphasis on larval parmphistomes in northern India". Journal of Helminthology 69(2): 125-138.
- Morley N. J., Adam M. E. & Lewis J. W. (2004). "The role of Bithynia tentaculata in the transmission of larval digeneans from a gravel pit in the Lower Thames Valley". Journal of Helminthology 78(2): 129-135.
- Toledo R., Munoz-Antoli V., Perez M. & Esteban J. G. (1998). "Larval trematode infections in freshwater gastropods from the Albufera Natural Park in Spain". Journal of Helminthology 72(1): 79-82.
- Prosthogonimus ovatus (Parasite Species Summary)
- Sauer J. S., Cole R. A. & Nissen J. M. (2007). "Finding the exotic faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata): Investigation of waterbird die-offs on the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge." U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007–1065, 3 p.
- "Cyanthocotyle bushiensis (Parasite Species Summary)"
- "Echinostomum revolutum (Parasite Species Summary)".
- "Syngamus trachea (Parasite Species Summary)"
- "Chapter 35 - Miscellaneous Parasitic Diseases - Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases".
- von Proschwitz T. (1997). "Bithynia tentaculata (L.) in Norway – a rare species on the edge of its western distribution, and some notes on the dispersal of freshwater snails". Fauna (Oslo) 50(3): 102-107.
- Kelly P. M. & Cory J. S. (1987). "Operculum closing as a defense against predatory leeches in four British freshwater prosobranch snails". Hydrobiologia 144(2): 121-124.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bithynia tentaculata.|
- Bithynia tentaculata at National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)
- Bithynia tentaculata at www.science.mcmaster.ca
- Brendelberger H. (1995). "Growth of juvenile Bithynia tentaculata (Prosobranchia, Bithyniidae) under different food regimes: a long-term laboratory study". Journal of Molluscan Studies 61(1): 89-95. (abstract). doi:10.1093/mollus/61.1.89.
- Shiro Tashiro J. & Colman S.D. (1982). "Filter-feeding in the freshwater prosobranch snail Bithynia tentaculata: bioenergetic partitioning of ingested carbon and nitrogen". American Midland Naturalist 107(1): 114-132.
- PAN Pesticides Database - Chemical Toxicity Studies
- Bithynia tentaculata Species account and photograph at Mollusc Ireland.