The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. NBN Species Dictionary (November, 2002) External link.
  • 2. Gibson, R., Hextall, B. and Rogers, A. (2001) Photographic Guide to the Sea & Shore Life of Britain and North-west Europe. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 3. Buczacki, S. (2002) Fauna Britannica. Hamlyn, London.
  • 4. Wilson, E. (1999) Octopus vulgaris. Common octopus. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme. [On-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. (November, 2003) External link.
  • 5. The cephalopod page (September, 2008) External link.
  • Abbot, R. T. 1954. American Seashells. D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.
  • Altman, J.S., (1967). The behaviour of Octopus vulgaris Lam. in its natural habitat: a pilot study. Inderwater Assoc. Rep., 1966-1976, 77-83.
  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Boyle, P.R. (ed.), (1983). Cephalopod Life Cycles, vol 1. Species Accounts. London: Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd. External link.
  • Campbell, A., (1994). Seashores and shallow seas of Britain and Europe. London: Hamlyn. External link.
  • Cuvier, G. 1797. Tableau elementaire de l'histoire naturelle des animaux. 710
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. 2001. Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50:
  • Guary, Jean-Claude & Fowler, Scott W., (1982). Experimental studies on the biokinetics of plutonium and americium in the Cephalopod Octopus vulgaris Marine Ecology Progress Series, 7, 327-335. External link.
  • Hanlon, R. T. & Messenger, J. B., (1996). Cephalopod Behaviour Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. External link.
  • Hatanaka, H. (1979). Studies on the fisheries biology of common octopus off Northwest coast of Africa. Bull. Far Seas Fish. Res. Lab. 17: 13-124.
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • ICES, (1994). Report of the study group on the life history assessment of Cephalopods. Copenhagen-Denmark ICES, K:7, 32. External link.
  • ITIS database
  • Kayes, J.R.,(1974). the daily activity pattern of Octopus vulgaris in natural habitat. Mar. Behav. Physiol. 2: 337-343.
  • Mangold, K. & Boletzky, S.v. (1973). New data on reproductive biology and growth of Octopus vulgaris. Mar. Biol. 19: 7-12.
  • Mangold, K. (1983) Octopus vulgaris, pp. 335 to 364 in Boyle, P.R. (Ed.) Cephalopod life cycles, Volume 1, Species Accounts. Academic Press, London, New York City.
  • Mangold-Wirz, K. (1963). Biologie des cephalopodes benthiques et nectonique del la mer Mer Catalane. Vie Milieu 13 (suppl.): 1-285.
  • Messenger J.B. (1974). Peflecting elements in cephalopod skin and their importance for camouflage. J.Zool., Lond. 174: 387-395.
  • Miramand, P. & Bentley, D., (1992). Concentration and distribution of heavy metals in tissues of two cephalopods, Eledone cirrhosa and Sepia officinalis, from the French coast of the English Channel Marine Biology, 114, 407-414. External link.
  • Nixon, M. & Mangold, K., (1996). The early life of Octopus vulgaris (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) in the plankton and at settlement: a change in lifestyle Journal of the Zoological Society of London, 239, 301-327. External link.
  • Norman M.D. & Hochberg F.G. 2005. The current state of Octopus taxonomy. Phuket Marine Biological Center Research Bulletin 66:127–154.
  • Packard, A. & Hochberg, F.G. (1977). Skin patterning in Octopus and other genera. Symp. zool. Soc., Lond. 38: 191-231. London and New York: Academic Press.
  • Packard, A. & Sanders, G.D., (1969). What the octopus shows to the world. Endeavour 28: 92-99.
  • Robson, G. C. (1929b). A monograph of the recent Cephalopoda. 1. Octopidinae, 236 pp. London: British Museum.
  • Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney & C.E. Nauen. 1984. FAO Species catalogue. Vol 3. Cephalopods of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Fish. Synop. (125), Vol 3: 277 p.
  • Roper, C.F.E., Sweeney, M.J. & Nauen, C.E., (1984). FAO species catalogue. Vol. 3. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, 125, 3, 277. External link.
  • Sweeney, M. J. and C. F. E. Roper / N. A. Voss, M. Vecchione, R. B. Toll and M. J. Sweeney, eds. 1998. Classification, type localities and type repositories of recent Cephalopoda. Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 586 (I-II). 561-599
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Villanueva, R., (1995). Experimental rearing and growth of planktonic Octopus vulgaris from hatching to settlement Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 52, 2639-2650. External link.
  • Wells et al., (1983). Diurnal activity and metabolic rate in Octopus vulgaris. Mar. Behav. Physiol. 9:275-287.


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