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The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Census of Marine Zooplankton, 2006. NOAA Ship Ronald H Brown, deployment RHB0603, Sargasso Sea. Peter Wiebe, PI. Identifications by L. Bercial, N. Copley, A. Cornils, L. Devi, H. Hansen, R. Hopcroft, M. Kuriyama, H. Matsuura, D. Lindsay, L. Madin, F. Pagè
  • Chun, C. 1903. Aus den Tiefen des Weltmeeres. 2nd ed. 592
  • Clarke, M. R. and C. C. Lu. 1975. Verical Distribution of Cephalopods at 18° N 25° W in the North Atlantic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 55 (1): 165-182.
  • Gofas, S. (2004). Vampyroteuthis infernalis Chun, 1903. In: MolluscaBase (2016). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. 2001. Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50:
  • Grzimek, D. 1972. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Herring, P. J., P. N. Dilly and C. Cope 1994. The bioluminescent organs of the deep-sea cephalopod Vampyroteuthis infernalis (Cephalopoda: Vampyromorpha). J. Zool. Lond. 233: 45-55.
  • Holotype: Berry, S. 1911. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 40(1838): 589.
  • Holotype: Sasaki, M. 1920. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 57(2310): 168, pl. 23, fig 1.
  • Hunt, J. C. 1996. The behavior and ecology of midwater cephalopods from Monterey Bay: Submersible and laboratory observations. Ph. D. Dissertation, Univ. Calif. Los Angeles. 231 pp.
  • Judkins, H. L., M. Vecchione, and C. F. E. Roper. 2009. Cephalopoda (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico,
  • Nesis, K. N. 1982. Abridged key to the cephalopod mollusks of the world's ocean. 385+ii pp. Light and Food Industry Publishing House, Moscow. (In Russian.). Translated into English by B. S. Levitov, ed. by L. A. Burgess (1987), Cephalopods of the world. T. F. H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 351pp.
  • Pickford, G. E. 1939. A re-examination of the types of Melanoteuthis lucens Joubin. Bulletin de l'Institut Oceanographique, 777. 1-12
  • Pickford, G. E. 1949. The distribution of the eggs of Vampyroteuthis infernalis Chun. Journal of Marine Research, 8(1):73-83.
  • Pickford, G. E. 1949. Vampyroteuthis infernalis Chun an archaic dibranchiate cephalopod. II. External anatomy. Dana-Report No. 32: 1-132.
  • Portner, H., R. O'Dor, D. Macmillan. 1994. Physiology of Cephalopod Molluscs: Lifestyle and Performance Adaptations. Switzerland: Gordon and Breach Publishers.
  • Robison, B. H, K. R. Reisenbichler, J. C. Hunt and S. H. D. Haddock. 2003. Light production by the arm tips of the deep-sea cephalopod Vampyroteuthis infernalis. Biol. Bull., 205: 102-109.
  • Robison, B. H. 1995. Light in the ocean's midwaters. Scientific American 273:60-64.
  • Roper, C. F. E. and R. E. Young. 1975. Vertical distribution of pelagic cephalopods. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoolog, 209: 1-51.
  • Seibel, B. A., Thuesen, E. V. and Childress, J. J. 1998. Flight of the Vampire: Ontogenetic gait-transition in Vampyroteuthis infernalis (Cephalopoda: Vampyromorpha). J. exp. Biol. 201, 2413-2424.
  • Seibel, B., E. Thuesen, J. Childress. 1997. Decline in pelagic cephalopod metabolism with habitat depth reflects differences in locomotory efficiency. The Biological Bulletin, 192: 262-278.
  • Seibel, B., E. Thuesen, J. Childress. 1998. Flight of the Vampire: ontogenetic gait-transition in Vampyroteuthis infernalis (Cephalopoda: Vampyromorpha). The Journal of Experimental Biology, 201 (16): 2314-2324.
  • Spencer, H.G., Marshall, B.A. & Willan, R.C. 2009. ecent Mollusca. Pp 196-219 in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.), The New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
  • Sweeney, M. J. and C. F. E. Roper / N. A. Voss, M. Vecchione, R. B. Toll and M. J. Sweeney, eds. 1998. Classification, type localities and type repositories of recent Cephalopoda. Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 586 (I-II). 561-599
  • Wood, J. April 22, 1999. "Vampyroteuthis" (On-line). Accessed February 14, 2000 at
  • Wood, J. February 12, 2000. "The Cephalopod Page; Octopuses, Squid, Cuttlefish, and Nautilus" (On-line). Accessed February 14, 2000 at
  • Wood, J., R. Ellis. April 19, 1999. "Vampyroteuthis" (On-line). Accessed February 14, 2000 at
  • Young, R. August 6, 1999. "Vampyromorpha Vampyroteuthidae: Vampyroteuthis Infernalis" (On-line). Accessed February 14, 2000 at
  • Young, R. E. 1964. The anatomy of the vampire squid. Masters Thesis, Univ. of Southern Calif.
  • Young, R. E. 1972. The systematics and areal distribution of pelagic cephalopods from the seas off Southern California. Smithson. Contr. Zool., 97: 1-159.
  • Young, R.E. 1967. Homology of retractile filaments of vampire squid. Science, 156(3782):1633-1634.
  • van der Land, J. (ed). (2008). UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (URMO).


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