The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1974. Scaphopods and Bivalves. Pp. 179 in Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia; Volume 3: Mollusks and Echinoderms. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Basu, S., S. Dastgheib-Hosseini, G. Hoover, Z. Li, S. Basu. 1994. Analysis of Glycosphinolipids by Fluorophore-Assisted Carbohydrate Electrophoresis using Ceramide Glycanase from Mercenaria Mercenaria. Analytical Biochemistry, 222: 270-274.
  • Bouchet P.,Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2013). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Brown, D., R. Van Beneden, G. Clark. May 10, 1995. Identification of Two Binding Proteins for Halogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Hard-Shell Clam, Mercenaria mercenaria. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol 319: 217-224.
  • Brunel, P., L. Bosse, & G. Lamarche. 1998. Catalogue of the marine invertebrates of the estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 126. 405 p.
  • Coan, Eugene V., Paul Valentich Scott, and Frank R. Bernard. 2000. Bivalve Seashells of Western North America: Marine Bivalve Mollusks from Arctic Alaska to Baja California. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Monographs, Number 2; Studies in Biodiversity, Number 2. viii + 764
  • Cool, R. June 1998. Hard times for hard clams. The Bay Journal, Vol 8(4).
  • December 2000. "Mercenaria mercenaria" (On-line). Accessed March 19, 2001 at
  • Devlin, C. 1993. An analysis of control of the ventricle of the mollusc Mercenaria mercenaria. The Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 179(1): 47-61.
  • Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 1994-2001. "clam" (On-line). Accessed May 1, 2001 at
  • Eno, N.C., Clark, R.A. & Sanderson, W.G. (ed.), (1997). Non-native marine species in British waters: a review and directory. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee. External link.
  • Fawcett, L., M. Tripp. 1994. Chemotaxis of Mercenaria mercenaria Hemocytes to Bacteria in Vitro. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 63: 275-284.
  • Gibson, R., Hextall, B. & Rogers, A., (2001). Photographic guide to the sea and seashore life of Britain and north-west Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. 2001. Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50:
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). 1990. The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. ed., (1999). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. CD-ROM Edition. Ulster Museum and The Marine Conservation Society, Belfast and Ross-on-Wye., Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication no. 280.] External link.
  • Huber M. 2010. Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901
  • ITIS database
  • International Seafood Distributors, "The Hard Clam" (On-line). Accessed May 1, 2001 at
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp.
  • Meinkoth, N.A. 1981. Field guide to North American seashore creatures. The Audubon Society. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. 799 p.
  • Mitchell, R. "Mercenaria mercenaria" (On-line). Accessed March 19, 2001 at
  • Muller, Y. 2004. Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France. 307 pp.
  • NBN (National Biodiversity Network), (2002). National Biodiversity Network gateway., 2008-10-31 00:00:00 External link.
  • Newell, G. 1964. Physiological Aspects of the Ecology of Intertidal Molluscs. Pp. 59-81 in K Wilbur, C Yonge, eds. Physiology of Mollusca: Volume I. New York: Academic Press Inc..
  • Owen, G. 1966. Feeding. Pp. 1-52 in K Wilbur, C Yonge, eds. Physiology of Mollusca: Volume II. New York: Academic Press Inc..
  • Plourde, K. "The Quahog" (On-line). Accessed April 19, 2001 at
  • Seaward, D.R., (1982). Sea area atlas of the marine molluscs of Britain and Ireland. Peterborough: Nature Conservancy Council. External link.
  • Shimamoto, M. (1996). Phylogenetic Implication of Shell Microstructures and Amino Acid Compositions in the Veneridae (Bivalvia, Mollusca). Bulletin de l'Institut Oc{\'e}anographique (Monaco). 4, 263-270.
  • Stanley, J.G. & Dewitt, R., (1983). Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic)-hard clam. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services. FWS/OBS-82/11.18. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 19pp. External link.
  • Stewart, V. March 21, 1996. "Sea-Stats No. 7 - Clams" (On-line). Accessed May 1, 2001 at
  • Streftaris, N.; Zenetos, A.; Papathanassiou, E. 2005. Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 43: 419-453
  • TOURENNE Murielle, ROCHEFORT Gaël, in : DORIS, 14/10/2013 : Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758),
  • Tebble, N., (1966). British Bivalve Seashells. A Handbook for Identification, 2nd ed. Edinburgh: British Museum (Natural History), Her Majesty's Stationary Office. External link.
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526
  • Turgeon, D. D., W. G. Lyons, P. Mikkelsen, G. Rosenberg, and F. Moretzsohn. 2009. Bivalvia (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico,
  • deMenocal, P. December 3, 2000. "The Paleotemperature Archive: Mercenaria mercenaria -- the common quahog" (On-line). Accessed March 19, 2001 at


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!