Overview

Distribution

Central Indo-Pacific to Japan
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Range Description

This species has a very wide geographic distribution stretching from southern Mozambique on the east African coast northwards along the Indian Ocean coastline of Asia and the Middle East, throughout Eastern and Southeastern Asia and as far north as southern Japan, and as far east as northern Australia, Papua and the islands of the Coral Sea such as Fiji and Guam (Reid et al. 2005). Specimens from Madagascar and southeast Australia are probably misidentifications (Reid et al. 2005). Nonetheless it is likely that the species as it is currently known, actually represents a species complex so further taxonomic work is required before the true distributional range can be elucidated.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Tentacular clubs half-moon-shaped, their protective membranes fused at base, completely surrounding sucker-bearing surface; a deep cleft or groove between swimming keel and dorsal protective membrane nearly separates sucker-bearing area from stalk
  • Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney & C.E. Nauen (1984). FAO Species catalogue. Vol 3. Cephalopods of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Fish. Synop. (125), Vol 3: 277 p.
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Ecology

Habitat

coastal
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is active during the day in tropical coral reefs (Reid et al. 2005). It is able to use colour changes to mesmerise prey and for camouflage (Norman 2003, Reid et al. 2005). It preys upon fish and crustaceans which it catches with wide clubs on the ends of its tentacles (Norman 2003). This species appears to be sexually dimorphic; for example, off Indonesia, males attain smaller sizes (170 mm in mantle length) than females (240 mm in mantle length) (Reid et al. 2005). Off Okinawa and Guam spawning occurs in spring between January and May (Reid et al. 2005). During the breeding season males establish territories around coral heads into which eggs are laid and perform ritualised displays to females (Norman 2003; Reid et al. 2005). Embryonic development takes four to six weeks (Reid et al. 2005). After hatching the young mimic mangrove leaves (Norman 2003).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 38 - 55
  Temperature range (°C): 28.031 - 28.031
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.579 - 0.579
  Salinity (PPS): 34.112 - 34.112
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.588 - 4.588
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.054 - 0.054
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.066 - 1.066

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 38 - 55
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sepia latimanus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Sepia latimanus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACATTAAATTTCATTTTTGGAATTTGATCGGGTTTATTAGGAACATCACTA---AGTTTAATTATTCGTAGAGAGTTAGGTAAACCCGGTACACTACTAAATGAT---GATCAATTATACAATGTTATAGTTACAGCCCATGGGTTTATTATAATTTTTTTCTTAGTAATACCTATTATAATCGGAGGTTTTGGTAATTGATTAATTCCTTTAATA---TTAGGAGCTCCAGATATAGCATTTCCACGTATAAACAATATAAGATTTTGATTATTACCCCCTTCATTAGCATTATTACTTTCATCATCTATTATAGAAAGTGGTGCAGGTACTGGATGAACAGTTTACCCACCATTATCTAGTAATTTATCACATGCTGGACCATCTGTTGATTTA---GCTATTTTTTCACTTCATTTAGCCGGTGTATCATCAATTTTAGGTGCAATCAATTTTATTACAACAATTCTCAATATACGTTGAGAAGGTTTACAAATAGAACGATTACCACTATTTGTGTGATCTGTATTTATTACCGCTATTTTATTATTACTATCTCTCCCTGTTTTAGCAGGA---GCAATCACAATATTATTAACTGACCGAAACTTCAACACAACATTCTTTGACCCTAGAGGAGGAGGTGACCCTATTTTATATCAACATTTA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.

Reviewer/s
Reid, A., Rogers, Alex & Bohm, M.

Contributor/s
Valinassab, T., Herdson, R. & Duncan, C.

Justification
Sepia latimanus has been assessed as Data Deficient as although it currently has a very wide geographic distribution, it is likely to consist of species complex. It is fished throughout most of its range and the impact of local fishing cannot be assessed if the distribution limits of species within the complex are not established. These distribution limits also need to be known in order to assess the potential impacts of global warming on its coral reef habitat.
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Population

Population
The population size of this species is unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Ocean acidification caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is potentially a threat to all cuttlefish. Studies have shown that under high pCO2 concentrations, cuttlefishes actually lay down a denser cuttlebone which is likely to negatively affect buoyancy regulation (Gutowska et al. 2010). This species is taken both as bycatch and forms an important fishery over much of its range (Reid et al. 2005). It is associated with coral reefs and therefore will be susceptible to knock on effects of global warming if coral reefs are impacted as predicted.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Taxonomic research is required to elucidate the details of this putative species complex. Further research on population trends, distribution, life history traits and harvesting trends will subsequently be required.
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Wikipedia

Sepia latimanus

Sepia latimanus, also known as the broadclub cuttlefish, is widely distributed from the Andaman Sea, east to Fiji, and south to northern Australia. It is the most common cuttlefish species on coral reefs, living at a depth of up to 30 m.[1]

The type specimen was collected in New Guinea and is deposited at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris.[2]

Description[edit source | edit]

The broadclub cuttlefish is the second largest cuttlefish species after Sepia apama, growing to 50 cm in mantle length and 10 kg in weight.[3] Like many cephalopods, the broadclub can be seen displaying a range of colors and textures. Commonly they are light brown or yellowish with white mottled markings. Males are sometimes dark brown, particularly during courtship and mating. The arms have longitudinal white bands that appear as broad white blotches when extended. Some arms have longitudinal brown bands that extend to the head. The dorsal mantle can sometimes be seen with a saddle mark with small white and brown spots. The dorsal mantle also has narrow brown transverse bands, and bold, white, transverse stripes and spots. The eyes are yellow around the ventral margins and the fins are pale with white, transverse stripes extending onto mantle and narrow, white bands along outer margins.

It is known to prey on shrimp and prawns of the genus Palaemon.[4] They appear to mesmerize prey with their rhythmic colored bands.

Sepia latimanus colour change. These images were taken only seconds apart.


See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Norman, M.D. 2000. Cephalopods: A World Guide. ConchBooks.
  2. ^ Current Classification of Recent Cephalopoda
  3. ^ Reid, A., P. Jereb, & C.F.E. Roper 2005. Family Sepiidae. In: P. Jereb & C.F.E. Roper, eds. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species known to date. Volume 1. Chambered nautiluses and sepioids (Nautilidae, Sepiidae, Sepiolidae, Sepiadariidae, Idiosepiidae and Spirulidae). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 4, Vol. 1. Rome, FAO. pp. 57–152.
  4. ^ Boletzky S.v. & R.T. Hanlon. 1983. A Review of the Laboratory Maintenance, Rearing and Culture of Cephalopod Molluscs. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Biology and Resource Potential of Cephalopods, Melbourne, Australia, 9-13 March, 1981, Roper, Clyde F.E., C.C. Lu &F.G. Hochberg, ed. 44: 147-187.
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