Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 A segmented worm with between 30 and 60 subdivided segments and a small head with two anterior lateral projections forming a T shape. The body is 5-10 cm long and wrinkled in appearance. Scalibregma inflatum is swollen anteriorly and then becomes slender towards the rear. Purplish red with yellow blotches it has four pairs of branching gills present on the second to fifth segments.Scalibregmatidae (sometimes called maggot worms) are not routinely encountered, although they can occur in huge numbers in shallow waters in northern Europe. More often, they occur in muddy sediments at more than 1000 m depth. They are active burrowers and feed on detritus in sediment and never form tubes.
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Description

Scalibregma inflatum, H. Rathke, var. (Pl. XLIV. figs. 3, 4 ; Pl. XXIIA. fig. 21).

 

Habitat.—Dredged in considerable abundance at Station 141 (between Prince Edward Island and Kerguelen), December 17, 1873 ; lat. 34° 41' S., long. 18° 36' E. ; depth, 98 fathoms ; bottom temperature 49°·5, surface temperature 65°·5 ; sea-bottom, green sand.

 

Apparently the same form was trawled at Station 169 (off the north-west corner of New Zealand), July 10, 1874 ; lat. 37° 34' S., long. 179° 22' E. ; depth, 700 fathoms ; bottom temperature 40°·0, surface temperature 58°·2 ; sea-bottom, blue mud.

 

The specimens are all much smaller than the European Scalibregma inflatum, the longest measuring about 18 mm., with a breadth at the anterior thickened region of nearly 4 mm.

 

When compared with the European form of similar size, the foreign species has a more fusiform outline and much less of the inflation anteriorly. The branchiæ are similar, but in the Norwegian examples these are longer. In both the latter and the British specimens a prominent and continuous fold occurs behind the head (separated by a sulcus) ; but in the Challenger form the head has a greater antero-posterior diameter, and posteriorly there are two elevated surfaces or papilla (Pl. XLIV. fig. 3). The only difference in regard to the tail is the apparent increase in the length of the cirri towards the tip, but in this respect so much depends on the state of the preparations that little reliance can be placed on it. The tessellated dorsal regions of the respective forms are very similar.

 

The cirri on the posterior feet seem to be somewhat longer. The spikes on the inner edge of the forks of the bristles (Pl. XXIIA. fig. 21) are smaller, the inferior bristles showing the latter feature better than the superior. Both British and foreign bristles have unequal limbs to the fork.

 

The curved bodies observed in the lamellæ of the feet are probably homologous with those described by Kölliker and Greeff in Ephesia (Sphærodoram).

 

The intestine is distended with sandy mud, amongst which are spicules of sponges, Foraminifera, and small Gregarin, the latter being probably parasitic in the Annelid.

 

In transverse section the body-wall posteriorly agrees with the structure in Scali­bregma inflatum, the nerve-cords lying outside the circular muscular coat, and having externally the hypoderm and cuticle. The oblique muscles meet in the middle line above the circular coat.”

 

(McIntosh, 1885)

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© National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

Source: Antarctic Invertebrates Website (NMNH)

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Distribution

Baaken et al (2014:110) "Scalibregma inflatum is reported from world-wide areas (Blake 1981). Most probably several species are confounded."
  • Bakken, T.; Oug, E.; Kongsrud, J. A. (2013). Occurrence and distribution of Pseudoscalibregma and Scalibregma (Annelida, Scalibregmatidae) in the deep Nordic Seas, with the description of Scalibregma hanseni n. sp. Zootaxa. 3753(2): 101.   10.11646/zootaxa.3753.2.1 External link.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Saguenay Fjord, southern Gaspe waters (Baie des Chaleurs, Gaspe Bay to American, Orphan and Bradelle banks; eastern boundary: eastern Bradelle Valley), lower St. Lawrence estuary, Prince Edward Island (from the northern tip of Miscou Island, N.B. to Cape Breton Island south of Cheticamp, including the Northumberland Strait and Georges Bay to the Canso Strait causeway); Laurentian Channel (bathyal zone)(=Honguedo Strait); Cobscook Bay to Cape Cod.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Physical Description

Type Information

Type for Scalibregma minutum Webster & Benedict
Catalog Number: USNM 383
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol); Slide
Collector(s): H. Webster
Locality: Eastport, Maine, United States, North Atlantic Ocean
  • Type:
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

bathyal, infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 2725 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1695 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 3690
  Temperature range (°C): -2.058 - 23.720
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.427 - 37.829
  Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 39.053
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.117 - 8.402
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 2.386
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.299 - 129.940

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 3690

Temperature range (°C): -2.058 - 23.720

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.427 - 37.829

Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 39.053

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.117 - 8.402

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.081 - 2.386

Silicate (umol/l): 0.299 - 129.940
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Found around low water mark and in the shallow sublittoral, buried deep in sand or mud.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Scalibregma inflatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Scalibregma inflatum

Scalibregma inflatum (Rathke, 1843) also known as T headed worm, is a burrowing marine polychaete. It is a cosmopolitan species that can be found from the Arctic to Antarctica although most probably several species are confounded.[1]

Morphology[edit]

Up to 6 cm long with an orange body with 50-60 segments. Body is composed of a wide anterior part of segments 15-17 and a long slim posterior part. Prostomium rectangular shaped with two lateral horns making it appear as a T. Peristomium without chaetae. Parapodia small and oval at first increasing in size from segments 16-18. Four pairs of branching gills dorsally on 2-5 segment with chaetae.[2][3]

Ecology[edit]

Mainly found in muddy substrate, but can also be found in sand and between stones and shells. S. inflatum is a deposit feeder. During the spawning period S. inflatum undergoe epitoky.[2][3]

Systematics[edit]

Scalibregma inflatum is found within the Polychaete family Scalibregmatidae. The genus Scalibregma is composed of 14 different species.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bakken, T., E. Oug & J.A. Kongsrud (2014). "Occurrence and distribution of Pseudoscalibregma and Scalibregma (Annelida, Scalibregmatidae) in the deep Nordic Seas, with the description of Scalibregma hanseni". Zootaxa 3753 (2): 101–117. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3753.2.1. 
  2. ^ a b Kirkegaard, J. B. (1996). "Havbørsteorme II". Danmarks Fauna 86: 241–242. 
  3. ^ a b Hayward, P. J. & Ryland, J. S (1995). "Handbook of the Marine Fauna of North- West Europe". Oxford University Press: p. 224. 
  4. ^ WoRM. "http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=130980". 
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