IUCN threat status:

Not evaluated

Comprehensive Description

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This perennial plant is 2-3' tall. It produces clumps of basal leaves that are sword-shaped and up to 3' long; they are mostly erect, although some of the larger leaves may become arched. These leaves are bluish green to green and glabrous. Individual leaves are up to 1" across near their bases, tapering very gradually to pointed tips. Leaf margins are smooth (entire) and leaf venation is parallel. The flowering stalks are either unbranched or sparingly branched and up to 3' tall; they are green, terete, and glabrous. Each stalk produces one or more small alternate leaves that are erect and sword-like. From the axil of each alternate leaf, there develops 1-2 flowers on pedicels 1-5" in length. Both the flowering stalks and pedicels are terete and glabrous. Each pedicel is enfolded by a pair of sword-like spathes that become chaffy with age. The blue-violet flowers are up to 3½" across, consisting of 3 sepals, 3 petals, 3 stamens, 3 style-branches with stigmata, and a green ovary that is elongated and angular. The petaloid sepals are oblanceolate in shape and spread outward from the center of the flower; they are blue-violet with prominent patches of yellow and white with fine purple veins. The sepals are without tufted hairs. Extending directly above the sepals, are the shorter petaloid style-branches; they are blue-violet and oblong in shape with upturned tips, forming open tubular structures with the sepals. The ascending petals are blue-violet and oblanceolate in shape with darker purple veins. The blooming period is late spring to early summer, and lasts about a month for a colony of plants, although individual flowers are short-lived. There is a pleasant floral fragrance. Afterwards, the flowers are replaced by oblongoid capsules that are 3-angled. These capsules are about 1½–2" long and ½" across; they contain rows of tightly stacked seeds. After the capsules split open, the seeds can float on water, spreading to new areas via water currents. The root system consists of fleshy rhizomes with coarse fibrous roots. Colonies of plants often develop from the rhizomes. Cultivation


Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers


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