The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2011. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
  • Attenborough, D. 1995. The Private Life of Plants: A Natural History of Plant Behavior. London: BBC Books. 320 p.
  • Berg, C. C. 1986. The Ficus species (Moraceae) of Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia 8(1): 17–55.
  • Berg, C. C. 1991. 156. Moraceae. Fl. Zambes. 9(6): 13–76.
  • Florulae Insularum Australium Prodromus 76. 1786. (Fl. Ins. Austr.)
  • Gibbs Russell, G. E., W. G. M. Welman, E. Retief, K. L. Immelman, G. Germishuizen, B. J. Pienaar, M. Van Wyk & A. Nicholas. 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 2(1–2): 1–152(pt. 1), 1–270(pt. 2).
  • Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 22: 521–2. 1886. (J. Linn. Soc., Bot.)
  • Moraceae of North America Update
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Perrier de la Bathie, H. 1928. Les Ficus de Madagascar. Arch. Bot. Bull. Mens. 2(8/9): 137–180.
  • Schatz, G. E., S. Andriambololonera, Andrianarivelo, M. W. Callmander, Faranirina, P. P. Lowry, P. B. Phillipson, Rabarimanarivo, J. I. Raharilala, Rajaonary, Rakotonirina, R. H. Ramananjanahary, B. Ramandimbisoa, A. Randrianasolo, N. Ravololomanana, Z.S. Rogers, C.M. Taylor & G. A. Wahlert. 2011. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 0(0): 0–0.
  • Species Plantarum 1: 1059. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!