Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Gonatus madokai was described by Kubodera and Okutani (1977) based on a large holotype (329 mm ML) and two juvenile paratypes (72 mm DML) with three additional specimens (40-63 mm ML) collected from the subarctic waters of the northwestern North Pacific.

Morphological changes with growth of this species were well described (Kubodera and Okutani 1977). G. madokai is one of a few gonatids that can be identified almost throughout its life.

Diagnosis

A Gonatus with ...

  • pronouncedly long arms (ca. 90% of ML), long tail (ca. 20% of ML) and soft body.
  • large fins (FL>1/2ML), sagittate with round sides (FW=83% of FL).
  • tentacle club with a central large hook, a middle-sized hook distal to the central hook and five small hooks in a line proximal to the central hook.

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Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Arms long and thick, but not so muscular.
    2. Arm III longest (90%ML), arm I shortest (4/5 of arm III).
    3. Arms III and IV with thin membranous aboral keels along entire lengths.
    4. Number of hooks and suckers on arm III 46-47 and 52, respectively.

      Figure. Ventral view of G. madokai (Holotype), 329 mm ML.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Club with 5 small hooks in series proximal to large central hook.
    2. Club with medium-sized hook distal to large central hook.
    3. Club suckers of dorsal- and ventral marginal zones merge proximally.

    4. Figure. Oral views of the tentacle and club of G. madokai, 329 mm ML, hologype. Top - Tentacle. Bottom - Enlargement of the tentacular club. Bar 10 mm. Drawings from Kubodera & Okutani (1977)

  3. Head
    1. Head almost squarish in shape, slightly narrower than the mantle opening.
    2. Funnel cartilage lanceolate in shape, nuchal cartilage rectangular with three grooves.
    3. Dorsal funnel organ inverted V-shaped, ventral ones oval in shape.
    4. Beaks. Information on the beaks of G. madokai can be found here.
    5. Radula composed of 5 rows of teeth.

  4. Fins and tail
    1. Fins large sagittate, fin length > 1/2 ML, fin width about 4/5 FL.
    2. Tail long gelatinous, about 22% of ML.

  5. Photophores
    1. Photophores absent.

Figure. Juvenile G. madokai (Paratype#1: 72mm ML). A - Ventral view. B - Oral view of right tentacular club. C - Oral view of dactylus sucker. D - Oral view of medial sucker proximal to the central hook. E - Side view of arm III hook. F - Oral view of arm III sucker. G - Oral view of arm IV sucker, medial series. H - Oral view of arm IV sucker, marginal series. Drawings from Kubodera and Okutani (1977).

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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in the subarctic Pacific ranging from the Sea of Okhotsk and Kurile Islands to Alaska (Kubodera 2006). Its range extends as far south as California in the west (Kubodera 2006).
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Source: IUCN

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G. madokai is widely distributed in the subarctic Pacific, and it is especially abundant in the deeper layers of the Okhotsk Sea (Nesis 1997).


Figure. Distribution of G. madokai based mainly on larval net sampling at surface layer. Drak pink area indicates known range; light pink area indicates inferred range. Chart modified from Okutani et al. (1988).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This is an abundant epipelagic species particularly in the Sea of Okhotsk, where it is preyed upon by toothed whales (Roper et al. 2010, Kubodera 2006). Planktonic paralarvae are commonly caught in the Sea of Okhotsk (Roper et al. 2010). Each stage in ontogenetic development in this species is well described in the literature (Kubodera 2006). Gonatids are medium sized oceanic squid that occur over a wide depth range from near the surface to more than 1,000 m in depth (Kubodera et al. 2006). Generally their planktonic paralarvae young are most abundant between 200-300 m in depth and highest abundances appear to occur over the continental slopes in summer (Okutani and Clarke 1992). Gonatus species attain a maximum mantle length of 400 mm (Kubodera et al. 2006).

Systems
  • Marine
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Source: IUCN

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epipelagic
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 5 - 5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Life History

Morphological changes with growth of G. madokai were reported by Kubodera and Okutani (1977). Paralarvae and juveniles of G. madokai ranging 8-72mm ML may be identified by having a swollen bell-shaped mantle, trapezoidal head, which is constricted at the base of the arms making eyes protuded in smaller specimens, and slender long arms and tentacles.


Figure. Morphological changes with growth of Gonatus madokai. A: ventral view of a 11mm ML, B: tentacle of A, C: ventral view of a 22mm ML, D: tentacle of C, E: ventral view of 40mm ML, F: tentacle of E. Drawings from Kubodera and Okutani (1977)

Paralarvae can be identified by the dorsal-head chromatophore pattern which is Type I (three tear-shaped chromatophores on each side.); the mantle has 18 dorsal and 28 ventral chromatophores (Jorgensen, 2006).


Figure. Dorsal views of the chromatophores of a G. madokai paralarva, 10.9 mm ML, Gulf of Alaska. Left - Head. Right - Paralarva. Drawing from Jorgensen (2007).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Gonatus madokai

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACATTATATTTTATCTTTGGTATTTGAGCAGGCCTACTAGGAACCTCCCTAAGCCTAATAATTCGAACTGAATTAGGACAACCTGGATCTCTACTAAACGAC---GATCAACTATATAACGTTGTAGTTACAGCCCATGGATTTATCATAATTTTTTTTTTAGTAATACCTATTATAATTGGGGGATTTGGTAATTGATTGGTTCCCTTAATATTAGGTGCCCCAGATATAGCTTTCCCTCGAATAAACAATATAAGATTTTGATTATTACCTCCTTCCTTAACACTATTACTAGCTTCCTCAGCTGTTGAAAGAGGGGCAGGTACAGGATGAACAGTCTACCCCCCTCTTTCTAGTAACTTATCTCATGCTGGCCCTTCAGTCGACTTAGCAATTTTTTCTCTACATTTAGCAGGTGTATCCTCTATTTTAGGAGCTATTAATTTCATTACTACAATTTTAAATATACGATGAGAAGGCTTACAAATAGAACGATTGCCTCTATTTGCTTGATCTGTATTTATTACCGCAATTTTATTATTATTATCGCTTCCTGTTCTAGCCGGAGCTATTACTATGTTATTAACTGACCGAAATTTTAATACGACCTTTTTTGACCCGAGAGGAGGAGGGGACCCTATTTTATACCAACATTTATTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Gonatus madokai

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.

Reviewer/s
Vecchione, M., Young, R. & Böhm, M.

Contributor/s
Duncan, C. & Carrete-Vega, G.

Justification
Gonatus madokai is an oceanic species which has been assessed as Least Concern, as it has a wide geographic distribution, making it less susceptible to human impact. However, further research is recommended in order to determine the precise distribution, population dynamics, life history and ecology, and potential threat processes affecting this species.
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Source: IUCN

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Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Source: IUCN

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Threats

Major Threats
The threats to this species are not known.
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Source: IUCN

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Further research is recommended in order to determine the precise distribution, population dynamics, life history and ecology, and potential threat processes affecting this species.
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Source: IUCN

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