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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Key to workers and queens of Malagasy Anochetus HNS

1. Inner mandibular blade without preapical teeth and denticles (Figs 3a, 4a) .................................. 2

Inner mandibular blade with at least four preapical teeth and denticles (Figs 2a,e)............................. 4

2. Worker compound eye large,>0.15 mm long. In full face view, antennal scape extends beyond posterior margins of occipital lobe. Dorsal surface of head and mesosoma with or without numerous short setae...................... 3

Worker compound eyes small, <0.15 mm long. In full face view, antennal scape usually fail to reach, and never surpass, posterior margin of occipital lobe. Dorsal surface of head with numerous short setae (Fig. 3a)............. grandidieri HNS

3. Dorsal surface of head and mesosoma without numerous short setae (Fig. 3a). Pronotal dorsum glassy smooth. ............................. madagascarensis HNS

Dorsal surface of head and mesosoma with numerous short setae (Figs 7a,b). Pronotal dorsum with punctures anteriorly and longitudinal ridges posteriorly (Aldabra).... pattersoni HNS

4. Petiolar node as seen from front or rear with apical margin deeply concave, lateral corner forming long spine (Fig. 5a)................................ boltoni HNS

Petiolar node as seen from front or rear with apical margin rounded, or slightly flattened, the lateral corner without spine (Fig. 5b).............................. goodmani HNS

  • Fisher, B. L., Smith, M. A. (2008): A revision of Malagasy species of Anochetus Mayr and Odontomachus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). PLoS ONE 3, 1-23: 4-4, URL:http://hdl.handle.net/10199/15447
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Anochetus HNS

> Anochetus HNS Mayr, 1861, Die Europäischen Formiciden, Wien, p. 53-54. Type species: Anochetus ghilianii HNS = Odontomachus ghilianii Spinola HNS , 1853, monobasic.

Myrmecia Fabricius, 1805 HNS , Systema Piezatorum, p. 423.

> Odontomachus HNS , Illiger, 1807, Mag. Insectenk., 6: 194. >Odontomachus HNS , F. Smith, 1858: 79.

Figs . 1-4, heads of Anochetus spp HNS . workers, full-face (dorsal) view. Fig. 1, A. tua HNS paratype. Fig. 2, A. brevis HNS holotype. Fig. 3, A. fuliginosas HNS , Monrovia, Liberia. Fig. 4, A. muzziolii HNS ?, Langkat, E. coast Sumatra. All to same scale.

> Odontomachus HNS , Brown, 1973: 178, 183.

> Stenomyrmex HNS Mayr, 1862: 711-712. Type species: Stenomyrmex emarginatus HNS = Myrmecia emarginata Fabricius HNS , by designation of Emery, 1911: 110; also Wheeler, 1911: 173. New synonymy.

> Anochetus HNS subgenus Stenomyrmex HNS , Emery 1890: 63-65. - Emery, 1911: 110. - Wheeler, 1925: 8-10, key. - Kempf, 1964: 237-246, Brasil, key. Kempf, 1972, 20-22, catalog of species.

> Myrmapatetes HNS Wheeler, 1929b: 6. Type species Myrmapatetes filicornis Wheeler HNS , by original designation, monobasic. Synonymized by Brown, 1953: 2. [13]

> Anochetus HNS , reviews and catalogs, etc., mostly regional: Emery, 1894: 185- 188, New World, key. - Forel, 1900: 58-63, India, Burma, Ceylon, key. - Bingham, 1903: 38-45, India, Burma, Ceylon, key. - Emery, 1911: 107-111, world catalog of species. - Arnold, 1915: 103-108, southern Africa, key; 1926: 214-218, southern Africa, supplement. - Wheeler,

1922a: 96-99, Congo; 1922c: 790-792, Africa, catalog of species; 1922:

1012-1013, Malagasy catalog of species. - Wilson, 1959: 502-510, Melanesia, key. - Kempf, 1972: 20-22, New World tropics, catalog of species.

Worker: Similar to Odontomachus HNS and with the characters of subtribe Odontomachiti (see Part VI, Section A, p. 72-74); size small (TL 2,9 mm in A. pupulatus HNS ) to moderately large (TL nearly 12 mm in A. inca HNS ). Color usually dull; brown, blackish, red, or yellow, sometimes bicolored.

Cranium basically as in Odontomachus HNS , but often shorter; always without the complex relief of the vertex in that genus, so that antennal fossa, ocular ridge, extraocular furrow and temporal prominence are all lacking, or at least poorly developed; median furrow replaced by a shallow and fairly broad posteromedian impression, more or less well developed in most species; nuchal carina rounded and continuous, or forming an obtuse, round-pointed V across the posterodorsal margin of the vertex, not forming an acute V on the midline; apophyseal lines not present on occipital face (see fig. 4, p. 94 of Section A). Eyes varying from large and with many fine facets to dot-like, with as few as 5 indistinct facets, each eye situated in a shallow, elliptical orbital fossa in the usual position for the subtribe, most apparent when the eye is small (fig. 11).

Mandibles linear, but varying from long and slender, with slender teeth in a series along the inner margins, as in A. horridus HNS (fig. 9), to rather stumpy, thickened apicad, and armed only with the apical triad of stout teeth, in some small forms (fig. 13) such as A. subcoecus HNS . Intercalary tooth of apical triad reduced to a small tubercle on the inside of the ventral apical tooth in a few species, or even obsolete. Under mouthparts much as in Odontomachus HNS ; maxillary palpi apparently always 4-merous, rather short in most species; labial palpi short, 3- or 4-merous.

Trunk with well-marked promesonotal and mesometanotal sutures; metanotal spiracles present in many species, indistinct or absent in the smallest ones. Propodeum rounded into declivity, or biangulate, or bidentate according to the species. Petiolar node varying in the extreme among species, ranging from conical, with an acutely tapered apical spine ( A. gladiator HNS ) to merely conical ( A. risii HNS ) to erect barrel-shaped ( A. sedilloti HNS ), thick bidentate ( A. faurei HNS ), thin squamiform (axially compressed, A. katonae HNS ), and so on, in all gradations. The squamiform nodes may be narrowly rounded at the apex in side view, or sharply cultrate, and in front view may have convexly rounded apical margins, or be truncate, emarginate or sharply bidentate.

Gaster ranging from compact to slender; first segment (postpetiole) large, and usually separated from second by a distinct constriction, which, however, is not developed in some species (e.g., emarginatus HNS , gladiator HNS , altisquamis HNS ).

Legs with simple tarsal claws; apical spurs of tibiae 1, 2, 2 or 1, 1, 2 or 1, 1, 1 or 1, 0, 1; at least one spur on the hind tibiae always pectinate.

Sculpture varying from almost completely striate or rugose with gastric dorsum densely reticulate and opaque, to almost completely smooth and shining. The fanwise striation of the frons is present, at least in abbreviated form, in all known species. Mandibles, antennae and legs usually smooth or finely and densely punctulate.

Pilosity varies widely; erect hairs simple, usually fine, abundant on body and appendages, to very sparse and limited; the small cryptobiotic forms often have reclinate pubescence developed at the expense of longer standing pilosity.

Ergatoid: Fairly common, and may possibly be the only functional queen in some groups (e.g., emarginatus HNS ). Like the corresponding worker, but often with 1 or 3 ocelli present; compound eyes usually larger; scutellum usually differentiated as a small, transversely elliptical sclerite.

Queen: With wings, or dealate, and the usual other differences from the worker; size only slightly larger in most species. Petiolar node often more strongly axially compressed. Eyes usually much larger than in the worker. Anal lobe of hind wing present in larger species, lost in some of the smaller ones.

Male: Habitus typical of small to medium-sized male Ponerini HNS . Anochetus HNS males are usually distinguished by their habitus, by large to very large compound eyes, and especially by the form of the petiolar node, which is usually a low, muted version of that of the female castes of the particular species. Most male nodes are either subconical or triangular in side view, the triangular ones being biangular above, often with the upper border weakly emarginate in front view; extreme forms are squamiform and apically emarginate.

The most remarkable thing about Anochetus HNS males is the extreme variation of their terminaba from one species to the next. This is in contrast to

Odontomachus HNS , in which the known males have very similar terminal structures, at least as seen in the undissected state. In Anochetus HNS , all of the basic ponerine structures are usually present: pygidium (tergum VIII), hypopygium (sternum IX), cerci (on membranous segment X, the proctiger), and the parts of the genital capsule proper: parameres (gonocoxites), volsellae (with digitus and cuspis), and aedeagus (penis valves). All of these parts may vary strikingly among species, even species that seem closely related judging form worker-queen traits.

Unfortunately, males found associated in the nest with the female castes are known only for a minority of the species. Additional kinds of males are known from collections at light or by Malaise trap, but it has not yet been possible to link any of these securely to worker-based species. As it stands, 3 described species are based on single male holotypes: pangens HNS and consultons from Sri Lanka, and filicornis HNS from Larat Island off West Irian. Probably some or all of these belong to species described under different names from the worker caste, so that synonymy will eventually result from the correct association of the sexes.

The most primitive terminalia known appear to be those of A. isolatus HNS (figs. 60, 61) from New Guinea; this has the pygidium drawn out into a stout, downcurved spine, and the hypopygium is a broad linguiform piece; the parameres are simple, with narrowly rounded apices. These conditions are as in Odontomachus HNS , which can be regarded as either the sister-genus of Anochetus HNS , or a line descended from such primitive Anochetus HNS as A. isolatus HNS or A. gladiator HNS . These same traits are also found in the presumptive ancestral Ponerini HNS (of subtribe Ponenti ). The most primitive Anochetus HNS species on worker-queen characters is A. gladiator HNS , but the gladiator HNS male remains unknown.

From the condition of A. isolatus HNS , one finds transitions to forms in which each paramere is constricted apicad into a ventrally-directed digitiform process ( A graeffei HNS , fig. 77; A. consultons HNS ; A. sedilloti HNS ) that becomes separated from the main body of the paramere by a more or less complete and flexible suture, or in which the body divides into two lobes in a complex way ( chirichinii HNS , figs. 56-59). The linguiform hypopygium tends to be narrowed, probably convergently, into a median, narrow, rodlike piece in some species of both Old World and New World groups, or, unexpectedly, into slender, bilaterally arranged, twin rods ( madaraszi HNS , figs. 64, 65), or a deeply cleft plate ( chirichinii HNS , fig. 58). In some New World species, the parameres develop fancy lobes, sometimes with grotesquely sculptured extremites (figs. 72, 73), but it is not completely certain that these are Anochetus HNS .

Volsellae and aedeagus vary considerably also, although these variations do not show so well in undissected material, and they are not dealt with in detail here (figs, 75 and 76; 72 and 78).

Unassociated males representing about 10 different species have been reviewed for this work, but I believe that nothing is gained by assigning new names to undescribed forms, all of which will eventually be tied to their respective female castes. The rearing of live colonies or colony fragments of Anochetus HNS is to be encouraged, for in this way we are most likely to make the necessary male-female associations.

Probably a knowledge of the male terminalia is needed to resolve completely the difficulties of species distinction existing in such complexes as those of A. inermis , HNS A. mayri, HNS A. traegaordhi HNS and A. graeffei HNS .

Distribution and Bionomics

There topics have been touched upon for Anochetus HNS in the respective summaries for subtribe Odontomachiti (A 77-88; the A. inermis HNS of p. 80 is assigned to A. simoni HNS in the present section). Anochetus HNS colonies of all groups appear to contain fewer (usually <100 adult) individuals than do those of Odontomachus HNS , and this together with their usually smaller body size tends to adapt them to living in cryptic sites of low volume, such as are available in rotten twigs in humus or forest litter, crevices in bark or rotten logs, hollow twigs in trees, palm leaf-base interstices, or small excavations in the soil.

Compared to Odontomachus HNS , then, Anochetus HNS species tend to be «interstitial» and more specialized in their microhabitat selection and lifeways; their environment is coarse-grained. We should recognize, meanwhile, that many of the species forage rather widely for their size, and ground- or rotten wood-nesting species often can be found well above ground level on forest or savanna woodland tree trunks, but in most cases after dark (e.g., africanas). Other species (e.g., levaillanti HNS ) may nest in the soil in arid areas, and forage over the ground surface near midday in only scanty shade. Probably, though, most species are nocturnal foragers.

Still other species, perhaps including emarginatus HNS , pellucidus HNS , fuliginosus HNS and faurei HNS , appear to be more or less arboreal nesters and foragers, though we have scanty, merely suggestive data on this point.

Anochetus HNS species are all certainly predaceous; the natural extent of their feeding on honeydew and other sugar sources is totally unknown. The mechanism of their trap-mandible is similar to that of Odontomachus HNS (Marcus, 1944, 1945), and like that genus, they can «jump» backwards by snapping the jaw-apices against smooth, unyielding objects. As befits their prevailingly small body size, Anochetus HNS species tend to respond to massive disturbances with lethisimulation rather than the aggressive biting and stinging reactions of Odontomachus HNS . On the whole, Anochetus HNS species are slower and more deliberate in their hunting behavior than are Odontomachus HNS , and more often tend to employ waiting-and-ambush tactics in securing their prey. Nothing substantial is known about their possible prey specificity. In fact, the biology of Anochetus HNS is a subject wide open to all kinds of investigation.

Anochetus HNS ranges about as far south as Odontomachus HNS in South America (to northern Argentina) and Australia (to arid inland parts of Victoria and southwestern Australia), but reaches farther south in South Africa (at least to Port Elizabeth in the eastern Cape Province). In the Northern Hemisphere, it gets to Morocco, Tunisia, and even the extreme southern point of Spain, beyond the range of Odontomachus HNS , and in the Middle East, A. evansi HNS occurs in Kurdistan, but, like Odontomachus HNS , Anochetus HNS is limited northward in India and Pakistan by the Himalayas and Pamirs. In China, Anochetus HNS is still known only from Kwangtung and Hainan, in the far south, whereas Odontomachus monticola HNS ranges far to the north, even beyond Peking. In the Pacific, A. graeffei HNS is widespread, undoubtedly through the agency of human commerce, and it reaches central Polynesia and Micronesia with Odontomachus simillimus HNS .

In North America, Anochetus HNS fails to extend northward beyond tropical Mexico and the Bahamas, while Odontomachus HNS reaches Arizona, central Texas and southern Georgia. The differences in distribution between these two genera indicate that Odontomachus HNS does somewhat better than Anochetus HNS at producing species that can penetrate colder climates, but that Anochetus HNS may have the edge in evolving species adapted to aridity. Both genera, of course, are predominantly tropical and forest-inhabiting.

  • Brown, WL Jr., (1978): Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, tribe Ponerini, subtribe Odontomachiti. Section B. Genus Anochetus and bibliography. Studia Entomologica 20, 549-638: 550-555, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/6757/6757.pdf
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Anochetus HNS Mayr

Worker.-Small ants with monomorphic workers. Head irregularly hexagonal. Mandibles inserted close together at the middle of its anterior border, linear, flattened, with three large terminal teeth bent inward at a right angle and with the inner border toothless or furnished with a row of minute denticles. Eyes usually well developed, rarely vestigial, in front of the middle of the sides of the head. Clypeus small, subtriangular, anteriorly projecting over the insertions of the mandibles and extending backward as a narrow process between the short frontal carinae, which are lobularly expended in front and more or less convergent posteriorly. Antennal foveae not confluent behind; head without an oblique welt or swelling on each side starting from the eye and bounding the antennal fovea; sides of head without a marked impression behind the antennal fovea. Antennae slender, 12-jointed; funiculi long, filiform, not enlarged apically. Thorax long and narrow, with distinct premesonotal and sometimes also mesoepinotal sutures; epinotum usually dentate. Petiole with a node or scale which may be conical and may terminate in a spine, or in two teeth or spines. Gaster oval, convex above, without a constriction between the postpetiole and the succeeding segment. Legs slender; middle and hind tibia; each with a single pectinated spur; claws simple.

Female very similar to the worker; usually winged, but in some species wingless am. ergatoid.

Male with the head of the usual shape, large eyes and ocelli and very small mandibles; antenna: very long; scape short, first funicular joint, broader than long. Petiole above more or less pointed or bidentate. No constriction between the postpetiole and the succeeding segment. Pygidium usually not terminating in a spine.

Map 16. Distribution of the genus Anochetus HNS .

The genus comprises numerous species which form small colonies that nest in the ground under stones or in vegetable mould. Little is known of their habits. They range over the tropics of both hemispheres(Map 1G), one species, A. ghilianii (Spinola) HNS , even entering Spain from Morocco. The subgenus Stenomyrmex HNS , of which only two species are known, is confined to the Neotropical Region.

  • Wheeler, W. M. (1922): The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, 39-269: 96-97, URL:http://plazi.org:8080/dspace/handle/10199/17097
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The Genus ANOCHETUS Mayr

List of the Melanesian and Moluccan Species, Arranged into Species Groups and Including New Synonymy

Group of A. cato Forel cato Forel

= Anochetus cato var. subfasciatus Mann

= Odontomachus rossi Donisthorpe

isolatus Mann

seminiger Donisthorpe

splendens Karawajew

Group of A. chirichinii Emery

chirichinii Emery

fricatus Wilson

Group of A. graeffei Mayr

graeffei Mayr

= Anochetus amati Karawajew

= Anochetus minutus Karawajew

= Anochetus punctiventris Mayr

= Anochetus punctiventris subsp. oceanicus Emery

Group of A. variegatus Donisthorpe

variegatus Donisthorpe

Incertae Sedis

filicornis ( Wheeler )

Key to the Anochetus Species of Melanesia and the Moluccas, based on the Worker Caste

1. Masticatory border of mandible with a prominent blunt tooth located at midlength; dorsolateral propodeal corners tuberculate; dorsal margin of petiolar node concave when node is viewed anteroposteriorly ................................. 2

Masticatory border of mandible lacking a prominent tooth at midlength; dorsolateral propodeal comers rounded or obtusely angulate; dorsal margin of petiolar node convex to acute in anteroposterior view ................ 3

2. Central portion of pronotum striate and subopaque; dorsolateral corners of petiolar scale forming angles of 80° or more ............ fricatus Wilson

Central portion of pronotum completely smooth and shining; dorsolateral corners of petiolar scale drawn out into spine-like processes of which the apices form angles of 60° or less. .. chirichinii Emery

3. Central portion of pronotum coarsely rugose and subopaque; propodeum angulate when viewed from the side; petiolar scale broad and moderately convex in anteroposterior view; anterior half of first gastric tergite often punctate ............................ graeffei Mayr

Central portion of pronotum smooth and shining; propodeum rounded in side view; petiolar scale narrowed dorsally, its crest strongly convex to acute; anterior half of first gastric tergite always completely smooth and shining ...................................4

4. Intercalary tooth of apical mandibular fork located on the inner border of the ventral tooth about two-thirds the distance from the angle of the fork to the tip of the ventral tooth (position of the median tooth is measured from the center of its base); petiolar scale tapering dorsally into a spine .................. variegatus Donisthorpe

Intercalary tooth of apical mandibular fork located on the inner border of the ventral tooth about half way between the angle of the fork and the tip of the ventral tooth; petiolar scale tapered somewhat dorsally but not forming a spine ..............................5

5. Cephalic striae covering most of the dorso-central surface of the head as well as the frontal area ........................... cato Forel

Cephalic striae limited to the area between the frontal carinae ( isolatus superspecies) ...............................................6

6. Head and alitrunk black, gaster and appendages yellowish brown (Waigeo) ............................... seminiger Donisthorpe

Head and alitrunk at most dark reddish brown, gaster and appendages dark yellowish brown to reddish brown ........................7

7. Head and alitrunk dark reddish brown, petiole and gaster dark yellowish brown (eastern Solomons and Santa Cruz)... isolatus Mann

Head and alitrunk light yellowish brown, petiole and gaster light reddish brown (Aru) ......................... splendens Karawajew

  • Wilson EO (1959): Studies on the ant fauna of Melanesia V. The tribe Odontomachini. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 120, 483-510: 502-504, URL:http://antbase.org/ants/publications/3481/3481.pdf
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Key to males of Malagasy Anochetus HNS (males of goodmani HNS unknown and not included)

1. Shortest distance between lateral ocellus and margin of compound eye smaller than maximum length of ocellus. Petiolar node as seen from front or rear with lateral corners rounded, without acute spine or sharp tooth ........... 2

Shortest distance between lateral ocellus and margin of compound eye distinctly greater than maximum length of ocellus. Petiolar node as seen from front or rear with lateral corners with acute spine or tooth ................... 3

2. Body yellowish brown. Petiolar node as seen from front or rear with apical margin concave. Paramere simple with rounded apex (Fig. 8c) .................... madagascarensis HNS

Body dark brown, black. Petiolar node as seen from front or rear with apical margin more or less flat. Paramere constricted apically into a veIntrally-directed digitiform lobe (Fig. 8d) ............................. pattersoni HNS

3. Head and mesoscutum with dense reticulate sculpture, opaque, not smooth or shiny. Declivitous surface ofpropodeum abrupt, about as long as dorsal surface............. grandidieri HNS

Head and mesoscutum with week sculpture, smooth and shiny areas present. Declivitous surface of propodeum gradually sloping posteriorly, indistinctly delimited from dorsal surface................................. boltoni HNS

  • Fisher, B. L., Smith, M. A. (2008): A revision of Malagasy species of Anochetus Mayr and Odontomachus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). PLoS ONE 3, 1-23: 4-4, URL:http://hdl.handle.net/10199/15447
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Anochetus Mayr HNS , 1861

(Fig. 5)

All males winged. Antennal scrobe absent. Mandible reduced. Basal cavity of the mandible extending to its front face, visible in full-face view. Notauli absent. Mesepimeron bearing distinct posterodorsal (epimeral) lobe that covers mesothoracic spiracle and forms a seemingly isolated plate. In most cases, each dorsolateral corner of petiole in anterior view with distinct projection. Dorsal margin of petiole, in anterior view, usually showing two apices. Apical margin of abdominal tergum VIII not projecting into sharp spine. Jugal lobe of hind wing present. Each middle and hind tibia with two spurs. Claws simple, not multidentate or pectinate.

Remarks. Five species are recognized in this region (B.L. Fisher and M.A. Smith, unpublished); four were examined in the present study. Species known from the Malagasy region have a distinct spine or tooth on each dorsolateral petiolar margin, and are easily separated from other genera by this character. However, males of a species (morphospecies A. blf-pat HNS ) from Aldabra do not have lateral teeth on the petiole. In addition, the male of a species (morphospecies A. blf-goo HNS ) from Madagascar is not yet known; given the morphology of workers, males might also lack lateral teeth on the petiole.

Males in the genus Anochetus HNS are similar to those in Odontomachus HNS and Pachycondyla HNS , but can be separated from them by a combination of two characters: 1) absence of terminal spine of abdominal tergum VIII; and 2) absence of notauli on the mesoscutum.

  • Yoshimura, M., Fisher, B. L. (2007): A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae. Zootaxa 1654, 21-40: 31-31, URL:http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/zt01654p040.pdf
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Worker.-Small ants with monomorphic workers. Head irregularly hexagonal. Mandibles inserted close together at the middle of its anterior border, linear, flattened, with three large terminal teeth bent inward at a right angle and with the inner border toothless or furnished with a row of minute denticles. Eyes usually well developed, rarely vestigial, in front of the middle of the sides of the head. Clypeus small, subtriangular, anteriorly projecting over the insertions of the mandibles and extending backward as a narrow process between the short frontal carinae, which are lobularly expended in front and more or less convergent posteriorly. Antennal foveae not confluent behind; head without an oblique welt or swelling on each side starting from the eye and bounding the antennal fovea; sides of head without a marked impression behind the antennal fovea. Antennae slender, 12-jointed; funiculi long, filiform, not enlarged apically. Thorax long and narrow, with distinct premesonotal and sometimes also mesoepinotal sutures; epinotum usually dentate. Petiole with a node or scale which may be conical and may terminate in a spine, or in two teeth or spines. Gaster oval, convex above, without a constriction between the postpetiole and the succeeding segment. Legs slender; middle and hind tibia; each with a single pectinated spur; claws simple.

 

Female very similar to the worker; usually winged, but in some species wingless am. ergatoid.

 

Male with the head of the usual shape, large eyes and ocelli and very small mandibles; antenna: very long; scape short, first funicular joint, broader than long. Petiole above more or less pointed or bidentate. No constriction between the postpetiole and the succeeding segment. Pygidium usually not terminating in a spine.

 

Map 16. Distribution of the genus Anochetus .

 

The genus comprises numerous species which form small colonies that nest in the ground under stones or in vegetable mould. Little is known of their habits. They range over the tropics of both hemispheres(Map 1G), one species, A. ghilianii (Spinola) , even entering Spain from Morocco. The subgenus Stenomyrmex , of which only two species are known, is confined to the Neotropical Region.

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(Fig. 5)

 

All males winged. Antennal scrobe absent. Mandible reduced. Basal cavity of the mandible extending to its front face, visible in full-face view. Notauli absent. Mesepimeron bearing distinct posterodorsal (epimeral) lobe that covers mesothoracic spiracle and forms a seemingly isolated plate. In most cases, each dorsolateral corner of petiole in anterior view with distinct projection. Dorsal margin of petiole, in anterior view, usually showing two apices. Apical margin of abdominal tergum VIII not projecting into sharp spine. Jugal lobe of hind wing present. Each middle and hind tibia with two spurs. Claws simple, not multidentate or pectinate.

 

Remarks. Five species are recognized in this region (B.L. Fisher and M.A. Smith, unpublished); four were examined in the present study. Species known from the Malagasy region have a distinct spine or tooth on each dorsolateral petiolar margin, and are easily separated from other genera by this character. However, males of a species (morphospecies A. blf-pat ) from Aldabra do not have lateral teeth on the petiole. In addition, the male of a species (morphospecies A. blf-goo ) from Madagascar is not yet known; given the morphology of workers, males might also lack lateral teeth on the petiole.

 

Males in the genus Anochetus are similar to those in Odontomachus and Pachycondyla , but can be separated from them by a combination of two characters: 1) absence of terminal spine of abdominal tergum VIII; and 2) absence of notauli on the mesoscutum.

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Yoshimura, M.

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Les caracteres que Mayr (Novara Reise p. 11) donne pour distinguer son genre Stenomyrmex du genre Anochetus se reduisent a une faible impression oblongue sur le vertex et a une impression oblique sur les cotes de la tete qui se trouvent chez le premier et font defaut au second. Des lors plusieurs especes d' Anochetus ont ete decrites par Mayr et Emery. L'examen de plusieurs types de ces especes ( rectangularis et graeffei Mayr, Sedilloti , et mayri Emery) ainsi que d'un Anochetus recu en nombre de Nossi be pres Madagascar par M. le Dr. Keller me demontre que ces caracteres qui paraissaient distinctits ne le sont pas, qu'ils varient insensiblement d'une espece a' l'autre. M. Mayr auquel j'ai envoye mon Anochetus de Nossi-be le trouve presque identique a son Stenomyrmex africanus . Malgre certains Stenomyrmex aberrants, tels que le S. emarginatus , je me crois donc en droit de fondre les deux genres.

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Forel, A.

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[[ male ]]. Indeterminable sans l'ouvriere. Peut-etre africanus Mayr, var. madagascariensis Forel. Seychelles: Mahe.

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Forel, A.

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[[ worker ]] Die Fuehlergruben vereinigen sich nicht auf der Stirne, sondern ziehen zu den Augen und enden daselbst. Das zweite Geisselglied ist etwas kuerzer als das erste. Der schiefe Eindruck beiderseits hinter den Augen, so wie die Scheitelfurche fehlen. Das Stielchen oben mit einer abgerundeten, ovalen, dicken Schuppe ohne Dorn,

 

Hieher gehoert nur eine europaeische Art, naemlich A. Ghiliani Spin., welche in Andalusien lebt.

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Mayr, G.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anochetus ZA01

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anochetus aff. cato

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anochetus MY05

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anochetus anja_sp1

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anochetus SC01

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anochetus YT01

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 745
Specimens with Sequences: 581
Specimens with Barcodes: 557
Species: 37
Species With Barcodes: 20
Public Records: 366
Public Species: 7
Public BINs: 15
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Anochetus

Anochetus is a genus of carnivorous ants found in the tropics and subtropics throughout the world.[3]

Species[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genus: Anochetus". antweb.org. AntWeb. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  2. ^ Bolton, B. (2014). "Anochetus". AntCat. Retrieved 22 July 2014. 
  3. ^ Schmidt, C. A; Shattuck, S. O. (2014). "The Higher Classification of the Ant Subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a Review of Ponerine Ecology and Behavior". Zootaxa 3817 (1): 1–242. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3817.1.1. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f De Andrade, M. L. (1994). "Fossil Odontomachiti Ants from the Dominican Republic (Amber Collection Stuttgart: Hymenoptera, Formicidae. VII: Odontomachiti)". Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 199: 1–28. 
  5. ^ MacKay, W. P. (1991). "Anochetus brevidentatus, new species, a second fossil Odontomachiti ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Journal of the New York Entomological Society 99: 138–140. 
  6. ^ Baroni Urbani, C. (1980). "Anochetus corayi n. sp., the first fossil Odontomachiti ant. (Amber Collection Stuttgart: Hymenoptera, Formicidae. II: Odontomachiti)". Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 55: 1–6. 
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