Ecology

Associations

Plant / resting place / within
pupa in cocoon of Cionus alauda may be found in soil below of Scrophularia

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Cionus hortulanus feeds on leaf of Scrophularia

Plant / resting place / among
pupa in cocoon of Cionus scrophulariae may be found among seedheads of Scrophularia

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Cionus tuberculosus grazes on leaf of Scrophularia

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Cleopus pulchellus feeds on Scrophularia

Foodplant / gall
larva of Contarinia scrophulariae causes gall of flower of Scrophularia

Foodplant / gall
larva of Gymnetron beccabungae causes gall of fruit of Scrophularia

Plant / resting place / within
adult of Haplothrips distinguendus may be found in live flower of Scrophularia
Remarks: season: 6-8

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Longitarsus agilis grazes on leaf of Scrophularia

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Longitarsus nigrofasciatus grazes on leaf of Scrophularia

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Longitarsus rutilus grazes on root of Scrophularia

Foodplant / parasite
Ovularia anamorph of Ovularia duplex parasitises live leaf of Scrophularia

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Pachyprotasis rapae grazes on leaf of Scrophularia

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Pachyprotasis simulans grazes on leaf of Scrophularia

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma nebulosa sensu Berk feeds on Scrophularia

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 240
Specimens with Sequences: 254
Specimens with Barcodes: 54
Species: 118
Species With Barcodes: 118
Public Records: 22
Public Species: 10
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Scrophularia

"Figwort" redirects here. This is also used for some other plants; see below.

The genus Scrophularia of the family Scrophulariaceae comprises about 200 species of herbaceous flowering plants commonly known as figworts. Species of Scrophularia all share square stems, opposite leaves and open two-lipped flowers forming clusters at the end of their stems. The genus is found throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but concentrated in Asia with only a few species in Europe and North America.[citation needed]

Scrophularia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Phymatopus hectoides.[citation needed]

Some species in this genus are known to contain potentially useful substances, such as iridoids, and several Scrophularia species, such as the Ningpo figwort or Chinese figwort (S. ningpoensis), have been used by herbal medicine practitioners around the world. The name Scrophularia comes from scrofula, a form of tuberculosis, because several species have been used to treat this disease.[citation needed]

As a herb used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, it has found use in a formula to treat arthritis. The herb has demonstrated a powerful painkilling ability equal to that of cortisone and twice as effective as indomethacin, a popular NSAID used to treat arthritis. Scrophularia exerts these significant analgesic effects with virtually no side effects.[1]

Extracts of Scrophularia have been shown to reduce edema, cell infiltration and proliferation of activated T-lymphocytes in joint tissues.[2]Additionally, Scrophularia has been shown to inhibit a number of inflammatory factors, including prosta-glandin E2, leukotriene B4, NO, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-2, interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma, but with no negative effect on the production of interleukin-10, a powerful cytokine involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses.[3]Moreover, Scrophularia is the source of a unique glycoterpenoid, Verbascosaponin A, which is twice as potent as indomethacin for relieving inflammation and pain. .[4][5]

Selected species[edit]

Green Figwort.

Other plants called "figwort"[edit]

Some other plants - mainly Lamiales formerly or still in the Scrophulariaceae - are also called "figwort". These include:[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jim English (2010). "Traditional Chinese Herbs for Arthritis". Nutrition Review (in English) 5 (2). Retrieved 2011-12-29. 
  2. ^ Schinella GR, Tournier HA, Prieto JM, Mordujovich de Buschiazzo P, Ros JL. Antioxidant activity of anti-inflammatory plant extracts. Life Sci. 2002 Jan 18;70(9):1023-33.
  3. ^ Li YM, Han ZH, Jiang SH, Jiang Y, Yao SD, Zhu DY. Fast repairing of oxidized OH radical adducts of dAMP and dGMP by phenylpropanoid glycosides from Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2000 Dec;21(12):1125-8.
  4. ^ Giner RM, Villalba ML, Recio MC, Mñez S, Cerd-Nicols M, Ros J. Anti-inflammatory glycoterpenoids from Scrophularia auriculata, Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Feb 18;389(2-3):243-52.
  5. ^ Jim English (2010). "Traditional Chinese Herbs for Arthritis". Nutrition Review (in English) 5 (2). Retrieved 2011-12-29. 
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