Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs off Australia ranging from Shark Bay, Western Australia to southern Australia and Tasmania then northwards to Brisbane in Queensland (Reid and Jereb 2005).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This small species inhabits sandy, muddy and seagrass (Zostera and Heterozostera) areas (Norman and Lu 1997). It buries itself during the day and glues debris and sand onto its body for camouflage (Reid and Jereb 2005). It emerges at night to feed on small crustaceans and fish (Reid and Jereb 2005). This species has a light organ in its gill cavity which emits just enough light to hide its silhouette at night from predators (Norman 2003). Mature males have enlarged suckers on their second, third and fourth arm pairs (Norman 2003). Their function is not known but may be connected to courtship and mating (Norman 2003). Spawning is seasonal occurring in the spring and summer although mature animals are found at other times of the year (Norman 2003). The female lays her eggs in clusters at the base of seaweeds or seagrasses (Reid and Jereb 2005). After hatching the young immediately take up the adult mode (Norman 2003).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 7 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 370
  Temperature range (°C): 16.693 - 16.693
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.507 - 0.507
  Salinity (PPS): 35.932 - 35.932
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.245 - 5.245
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.172 - 0.172
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.458 - 1.458

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 370
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Euprymna tasmanica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 19 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ACTTTATACTTTATTTTTGGTATTTGATCTGGTTTATTGGGAACTTCATTA---AGTTTGATAATTCGAACCGAATTAGGTAAACCTGGGTCATTGCTAAATGAT---GACCAATTATATAATGTTGTAGTAACTGCACACGGTTTTGTTATAATTTTCTTCTTAGTAATACCTATTATAATTGGGGGTTTTGGTAACTGATTAGTTCCTTTAATA---CTAGGTGCCCCTGATATAGCTTTCCCACGTATAAATAATATAAGATTTTGACTACTGCCTCCGTCCTTAACCTTGCTACTAGCTTCCTCGGCTGTAGAAAGAGGTGCAGGCACAGGATGAACCGTGTATCCTCCATTATCTAGTAATATTTCACATGCGGGCCCTTCAGTGGACCTA---GCTATTTTCTCTCTTCATTTAGCCGGTGTATCTTCTATTTTAGGTGCTATTAATTTTATTACAACTATTATAAATATACGTTGGGAAGGTTTACAGATAGAACGACTACCTTTATTCGTTTGATCTGTCTTTATTACAGCTATTTTATTGCTACTATCATTACCCGTCCTGGCGGGA---GCAATTACGATGTTATTAACTGACCGTAATTTTAATACAACTTTTTTTGACCCTAGCGGAGGGGGTGATCCTATTTTATATCAACACTTA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Euprymna tasmanica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 19
Specimens with Barcodes: 19
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.

Reviewer/s
Reid, A., Rogers, Alex & Bohm, M.

Contributor/s
Herdson, R. & Duncan, C.

Justification
Euprymna tasmanica has been assessed as Data Deficient as although this is one of the better described species of Euprymna, the extent of its distribution is still not clear (Norman and Lu 1997). Also more information is required on its association with seagrass beds and the amount taken in fisheries in order to be able to determine whether this species is threatened.
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Population

Population
The population size of this species is unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
It is caught locally on a small scale (Reid and Jereb 2005). Its association with seagrasses may be cause for concern given the global decline in this habitat.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Basic research is required on this species to elucidate its distribution, population size and life history characteristics.
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Wikipedia

Euprymna tasmanica

Euprymna tasmanica, also known as the Southern Dumpling Squid, is a bobtail squid that lives in the shallow (0.5 m to at least 80 m) temperate coastal waters of southern Australia's continental shelf. It lives for between 5 and 8 months and the adults can grow up to 6 or 7 cm long with a mantle length of 3 to 4 cm. They are found in seagrass beds or areas with soft silty or muddy bottoms from Brisbane on the east coast to Shark Bay on the west, as well as around Tasmania. Southern Dumpling Squid are nocturnal and during the day hide in sand or mud covered in a mucus-lined coat of sediment. If disturbed acid glans can quickly remove this coat as an additional decoy to ink squirting.

Physical appearance[edit]

Like other bobtail squid, Southern Dumpling Squid have a light organ fuelled by symbiotic bioluminescent bacteria. The light organ, which is butterfly-shaped, is situated in the mantle cavity and is used to cancel out the bobtail squid's silhouette. There are large semi-circular fins on the rear half of the mantle. Although they can change colour, they are usually an iridescent green or yellow with brown spots. The bobtail squid have four rows of suckers on each arm and both their arms and tentacles are armed with toothed horny rim.

Reproduction[edit]

Like many cephalopods the male can be distinguished from the female by an enlarged hectocotylus which occurs as the first left arm. Females lay 2 or 3 batches of round creamy orange eggs (25 - 170 eggs per batch) over a few weeks towards the end of their life. Females die between a week and a fortnight after laying eggs and males die a short time after mating multiple times. Females mate with many partners and may use the sperm of more than one partner for one batch of eggs. Depending on temperature incubation can take up to four and a half months, because of this the eggs must be comparatively large to provide enough yolk for successful embryonic development. If the females are underfed while producing eggs they tend to produce fewer and smaller eggs which leads to high embryo mortality rates. Parent Southern Dumpling Squid do not look after their young however the hatchlings are highly developed when born and are capable of catching prey up to twice their size. Young are not born with the needed bacteria for their light organ and must capture them from the water column before the light organ can develop.

Naming[edit]

The Southern Dumpling Squid is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Southern Bobtail Squid. Although the Southern Dumpling Squid is a bobtail squid, this name refers to a different smaller Australian species of bobtail squid which has yet to be scientifically named.

References[edit]

  • M Norman & A Reid, (2000), A Guide to Squid, Cuttlefish and Octopuses of Australasia. Moorabbin, The Gould League of Australia. ISBN 0-643-06577-6
  • M A Steer, N A Moltschaniwskyj, D S Nichols and M Miller, (2004), The role of temperature and maternal ration in embryo survival: using the dumpling squid Euprymna tasmanica as a model, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 307, pp. 73-89.
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