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Overview

Brief Summary

Cinnamomum verum (formerly C. zeylanicum), “true cinnamon” or Sri Lanka or Ceylon cinnamon, is a small evergreen tropical tree in the Lauraceae (laurel family) that originated in Sri Lanka and is one of several Cinnamomum species that produce the commercially important spice known as cinnamon. Although cassia (C. aromaticum), which is less expensive and has a stronger flavor, is often marketed as “cinnamon,” C. verum is generally considered to have a more delicate flavor that is more suitable for desserts.

The names “cinnamon” and “cassia” cause considerable confusion, as they are often used interchangeably. In the U.S., the spice produced from the dried, ground bark of any of these species is referred to as “cinnamon,” without distinguishing among species. In addition, “cinnamon” may also refer to the spice obtained from the aromatic bark of an unrelated species, Canella winterana (in the Canellaceae). When the spice is sold in bark form, rather than ground, C. verum can be distinguished from C. aromaticum because it comes in tight rolls (quills) rather than in looser flakes with curled edges. It can be distinguished from the related Indonesian cinnamon (C. burmanii) by the quills having many soft layers, which can easily be ground in a coffee grinder, as opposed neat quills composed of a single extremely hard layer.

The C. verum tree grows to around 10 m (30 ft), and has leathery leaves, usually opposite, that are lanceolate to ovate, 11 to 16 cm (4.5 to 6.25 in) long, with pointed tips. The inconspicuous yellow flowers, which are tubular with 6 lobes, grow in panicles (clusters) that are as long as the leaves. The fruit is a small, fleshy berry, 1 to 1.5 cm (0.25 to 0.5 in) long, that ripens to black, partly surrounded by a cup-like perianth (developed from the outer parts of the flower).

The spice form of cinnamon is obtained by removing the outer bark of the tree, and scraping from it the inner bark, which is dried and ground into power. Cultivated trees may also be coppiced (cut back to encourage shoot development), so that the coppiced shoots can be harvested. Cinnamon oil is steam distilled from the leaves and twigs.

Cinnamon from various species has been used as a spice since ancient times (noted in Sanskrit texts and in the Bible, as well as in accounts by Herodotus and Pliny, although it can be difficult to ascertain which particular species is referred to). It is widely used to flavor baked goods, puddings and other desserts, and candies, as well as soups and stews, curries, meat and poultry dishes, and pickles. Cinnamon is also used to flavor beverages, including teas and mulled wine.

FAO estimates that total commercial production of all forms of cinnamon (derived from several species of Cinnamomum, including C. aromaticum, as well as canella (Canella winterana) was 155,000 metric tons, harvested from 186,000 hectares. China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam together produced around 98% of the world’s total.

(Bailey et al. 1976, FAO 2012, Flora of China 2012, Hedrick 1919, van Wyk 2005.)

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Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests, Cultivated"
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Summary

"Understorey trees in evergreen forests, between 600 and 1200 m."
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"
Global Distribution

South West India and Sri Lanka

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Pune, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Coorg, Dharwar, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga, S. Kanara Kerala: Alapuzha, Idukki, Kannur, Kasaragod, Kollam, Kottayam, Kozhikode,Malapuram, Thiruvananthapuram Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari, Nilgiri, Namakkal, Tirunelveli"
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Western Ghats and Sri Lanka; in the Western Ghats- South and Central Sahyadris.
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Trees, to 20 m high, bark 8-10 mm thick, brown, rough, cracks vertical; blaze creamy pink; bole buttressed; branchlets glabrous. Leaves simple, opposite or subopposite, estipulate; petiole 8-20 mm, stout, glabrous, slightly grooved above; lamina 9.5-14 x 3.5-5.5 cm, ovate, elliptic ovate or elliptic-lanceolate, base acute, apex acute to acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous, 3-ribbed from base, prominent, glabrous; lateral nerves 3-6 pairs, obscure, pinnate; intercostae reticulate. Flowers bisexual, in terminal and axillary, pedicel 7 mm long, pale yellow, 5 mm long, 6 mm across; perianth 8 mm, silky, tube campanulate, lobes 6, 3 mm long, oblong-lanceolate; stamens 9 perfect, those of first and second rows opposite the perianth lobes, introrse and eglandular, those of third row opposite the first row, lateral, bearing 2 large glands at the base; staminodes 3, of the forth row opposite the second row, cordate and stipitate; ovary half inferior, sessile. Fruit a berry, 1-2 cm, ellipsoid to oblong-ovoid, dark purple, surrounded by the enlarged perianth."
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Diagnostic

"
Habit

Trees, slightly buttressed, up to 16 m tall.

Trunk & Bark

Bark smooth, light brown with strong cinnamon smell; blaze brown.

Branches and Branchlets

Branchlets slender, subterete, glabrous

Leaves

Leaves simple, opposite to subopposite, rarely alternate, spiral; petiole to 2 cm long, planoconvex in cross section, glabrous; lamina 8-16 x 3-5 cm, elliptic-ovate to elliptic-lanceolate apex acute to acuminate, base acute to attenuate, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous; trinerved (rarely 5-nerved), basal, laterals not reaching the leaf apex, strongly cinnamon smell; tertiary nerves horizontally percurrent; higher order nerves minutely reticulate.

Inflorescence / Flower

Inflorescence axillary panicles, 20 cm long, many flowered; flowers pale yellow green.

Fruit and Seed

Berry, ellipsoid, dark purple, 1.2 cm long; fruiting perianth cup ribbed with persistent lobes; seeds 1.

"
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Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Evergreen and riparian forests, also cultivated"
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General Ecology

Ecology

"Understorey trees in evergreen forests, between 600 and 1200 m."
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: March-April
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cinnamomum verum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cinnamomum verum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cinnamomum zeylanicum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Stem: Bark infusion is employed in French Guiana to increase dilation during childbirth. Infusion is used by Hindus in Surinam for treating coughs and colds.

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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Cinnamon

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum, synonym C. zeylanicum) is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae, native to Sri Lanka,[1] or the spice obtained from the tree's bark. It is often confused with other, similar species and the spices derived from them, such as Cassia and Cinnamomum burmannii, which are also often called cinnamon.

Contents

Nomenclature and taxonomy

The name cinnamon comes from Phoenician through the Greek kinnámōmon. The botanical name for the spice—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name, Ceylon.[2]

In many other, particularly European, languages it has a name akin to French cannelle, diminutive of canne (reed, cane) from its tube-like shape.

In Oriya, it is known as "DalChini". In Kannada it is called "dAlchinni chakke" (ದಾಲ್ಚಿನ್ನಿ ಚಕ್ಕೆ) - "ಚಕ್ಕೆ"/"chakke" meaning bark. In Bengali, it is called "Darchini" (দারুচিনি). In Telugu, it is called Dalchina Chakka, Chakka meaning bark or wood. In Sanskrit cinnamon is known as tvak or dārusitā.In Urdu, Hindi, and Hindustani cinnamon is called dalchini (दालचीनी دارچینی), in Assamese it is called alseni, and in Gujarati taj. In Persian, it is called darchin (دارچین). In Turkish, it is called "Tarçın" .

In Indonesia, where it is cultivated in Java and Sumatra, it is called kayu manis and sometimes cassia vera, the "real" cassia.[3] In Sri Lanka, in the original Sinhala, cinnamon is known as kurundu,[4] recorded in English in the 17th century as Korunda.[5] In Malayalam, karugapatta (കറുവാപ്പട്ട) and in Tamil pattai (பட்டை) or lavangampattai (இலவங்கப்பட்டை) or karuvappattai (கருவாப்பட்டை). In Arabic it is called qerfa (قرفة).

History

Cinnamon (canella) output in 2005
Cinnamomum verum, from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887)
Quills of true cinnamon bark and ground cinnamon.

Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. The Old Testament makes specific mention of the spice many times: first when Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew קִנָּמוֹן, qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil;[6] in Proverbs where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrh, aloe and cinnamon;[7] and in Song of Solomon, a song describing the beauty of his beloved, cinnamon scents her garments like the smell of Lebanon.[8] It was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus.[9] Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade, to protect their monopoly as suppliers, cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka.[1] It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC, but those who report that it had come from China confuse it with cassia.[10] It is also alluded to by Herodotus and other classical writers. It was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome, but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in CE 65.[11]

Before the foundation of Cairo, Alexandria was the Mediterranean shipping port of cinnamon. Europeans who knew the Latin writers who were quoting Herodotus knew that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt, but whether from Ethiopia or not was less than clear. When the sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on crusade in 1248, he reported what he had been told—and believed—that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world. Through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. Marco Polo avoided precision on this score.[12] In Herodotus and other authors, Arabia was the source of cinnamon: giant Cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew and used them to construct their nests; the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. This story was current as late as 1310 in Byzantium, although in the first century, Pliny the Elder had written that the traders had made this up in order to charge more. The first mention of the spice growing in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") in about 1270.[13] This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino, in a letter of about 1292.[14]

Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon (known in Indonesia as kayu manis- literally "sweet wood") on a "cinnamon route" directly from the Moluccas to East Africa, where local traders then carried it north to the Roman market.[15][16][17] See also Rhapta.

Arab traders brought the spice via overland trade routes to Alexandria in Egypt, where it was bought by Venetian traders from Italy who held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers, such as the Mamluk Sultans and the Ottoman Empire, was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.

Portuguese traders finally landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the beginning of the sixteenth century and restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese, who later held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon. The Portuguese established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected their own monopoly for over a hundred years.

Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. They established a trading post in 1638, took control of the factories by 1640, and expelled all remaining Portuguese by 1658. "The shores of the island are full of it", a Dutch captain reported, "and it is the best in all the Orient: when one is downwind of the island, one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea." (Braudel 1984, p. 215)

The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.

In 1767 Lord Brown of East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala, and this estate became Asia's largest cinnamon estate.

The British took control of the island from the Dutch in 1796. However, the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining, as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas, the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers, and coffee, tea, sugar, and chocolate began to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices.

The plant

Cinnamon' trees are 10–15 metres (32.8–49.2 feet) tall. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape, 7–18 cm (2.75–7.1 inches) long. The flowers, which are arranged in panicles, have a greenish color, and have a distinct odor. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed.

Cultivation

Leaves from a wild cinnamon tree

Cinnamon is harvested by growing the tree for two years and then coppicing it. The next year, about a dozen shoots will form from the roots.

The branches harvested this way are processed by scraping off the outer bark, then beating the branch evenly with a hammer to loosen the inner bark. The inner bark is then prised out in long rolls. Only the thin (0.5 mm) inner bark is used; the outer, woody portion is discarded, leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. Once dry, the bark is cut into 5–10 cm lengths for sale.

The bark must be processed immediately after harvesting, while still wet. Once processed, the bark will dry completely in four to six hours, provided that it is in a well-ventilated and relatively warm environment. A less than ideal drying environment encourages the proliferation of pests in the bark, which may then require treatment by fumigation. Bark treated this way is not considered to be of the same premium quality as untreated bark.

Cinnamon has been cultivated from time immemorial in Sri Lanka, and the tree is also grown commercially at Kerala in southern India, Bangladesh, Java, Sumatra, the West Indies, Brazil, Vietnam, Madagascar, Zanzibar, and Egypt. Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin, smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown color and a highly fragrant aroma. In recent years in Sri Lanka, following considerable research by the Universities in that country led by the University of Ruhunu, mechanical devices to ensure premium quality and worker safety and health have been developed.

According to the International Herald Tribune, in 2006 Sri Lanka produced 90% of the world's cinnamon, followed by China, India, and Vietnam.[18] According to the FAO, Indonesia produces 40% of the world's Cassia genus of cinnamon.

The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups:
• Alba less than 6 mm in diameter
• Continental less than 16 mm in diameter
Mexican less than 19 mm in diameter
Hamburg less than 32 mm in diameter
These groups are further divided into specific grades, eg, Mexican is divided into M00 000 special, M000000 and M0000 depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kg.

Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm long is categorized as quillings. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Chips are trimmings of quills, outer and inner bark that cannot be separated or the bark of small twigs.

Associated species

There are several species of Cinnamon found in South and South-East Asia. In addition to the cultivated cinnamon type (Cinnamomum zeylanicum or C. verum), there reported to be seven other species of wild cinnamon which are endemic to Sri Lanka

There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum zeylanicum based on the taste of bark.

  • Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu, Pat Kurundu or Mapat Kurundu
  • Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu
  • Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu
  • Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu
  • Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu
  • Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu
  • Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu

Cinnamon and cassia

Ceylon ("True") Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, on the left) and Indonesian Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii) quills side-by-side

The name cinnamon is correctly used to refer to Ceylon cinnamon, also known as "true cinnamon"[citation needed] (from the botanical name C. zeylanicum). However, the related species, Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum), Saigon Cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi), and Cinnamomum burmannii are sometimes sold labeled as cinnamon, sometimes distinguished from true cinnamon as "Chinese cinnamon", "Vietnamese cinnamon", or "Indonesian cinnamon"; many websites, for example, describe their "cinnamon" as being cassia.[19] Ceylon cinnamon, using only the thin inner bark, has a finer, less dense, and more crumbly texture, and is considered to be less strong than cassia. Cassia has a much stronger (somewhat harsher) flavour than cinnamon, is generally a medium to light reddish brown, hard and woody in texture, and thicker (2–3 mm thick), as all of the layers of bark are used.[20]

Due to the presence of a moderately toxic component called coumarin, European health agencies have recently warned against consuming large amounts of cassia.[21] This is contained in much lower dosages in Cinnamomum burmannii due to its low essential oil content. Coumarin is known to cause liver and kidney damage in high concentrations. True Ceylon cinnamon has negligible amounts of coumarin.

The two barks, when whole, are easily distinguished, and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. Cinnamon sticks (or quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder, whereas cassia sticks are much harder. Indonesian cassia (Cinnamomum burmannii) is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer, capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. Saigon cassia (Cinnamomum loureiroi) and Chinese cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark, as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. It is a bit harder to tell powdered cinnamon from powdered cassia. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch), little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality, but when cassia is present, a deep-blue tint is produced, the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of cassia.[citation needed]

Cinnamon is also sometimes confused with Malabathrum (Cinnamomum tamala) and Saigon cinnamon (Cinnamomum loureiroi).

Uses

Cinnamon bark

Cinnamon bark is widely used as a spice. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring material. It is used in the preparation of chocolate, especially in Mexico, which is the main importer of true cinnamon.[22] It is also used in the preparation of some kinds of desserts, such as apple pie, donuts, and cinnamon buns as well as spicy candies, tea, hot cocoa, and liqueurs. True cinnamon, rather than cassia, is more suitable for use in sweet dishes. In the Middle East, it is often used in savory dishes of chicken and lamb. In the United States, cinnamon and sugar are often used to flavor cereals, bread-based dishes, and fruits, especially apples; a cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately for such purposes. Cinnamon can also be used in pickling. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices that can be consumed directly. Cinnamon powder has long been an important spice in Persian cuisine, used in a variety of thick soups, drinks, and sweets. It is often mixed with rosewater or other spices to make a cinnamon-based curry powder for stews or just sprinkled on sweet treats (most notably Shole-zard Persian شله زرد).

Its flavor is due to an aromatic essential oil that makes up 0.5% to 1% of its composition. This oil is prepared by roughly pounding the bark, macerating it in seawater, and then quickly distilling the whole. It is of a golden-yellow color, with the characteristic odor of cinnamon and a very hot aromatic taste. The pungent taste and scent come from cinnamic aldehyde or cinnamaldehyde (about 60 % of the bark oil) and, by the absorption of oxygen as it ages, it darkens in color and develops resinous compounds. Other chemical components of the essential oil include ethyl cinnamate, eugenol (found mostly in the leaves), beta-caryophyllene, linalool, and methyl chavicol[citation needed].

In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and once had a reputation as a cure for colds. It has also been used to treat diarrhea and other problems of the digestive system.[23] Cinnamon is high in antioxidant activity.[24][25] The essential oil of cinnamon also has antimicrobial properties,[26] which can aid in the preservation of certain foods.[27]

Cinnamon has been reported to have remarkable pharmacological effects in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. However, the plant material used in the study was mostly from cassia and only few of them are truly from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (see cassia's medicinal uses for more information about its health benefits).[28][29] Recent advancement in phytochemistry has shown that it is a cinnamtannin B1 isolated from C. zeylanicum which is of therapeutic effect on Type 2 diabetes,[30] with the exception of the postmenopausal patients studied on C. cassia.[31] Cinnamon has traditionally been used to treat toothache and fight bad breath and its regular use is believed to stave off common cold and aid digestion.[32]

Cinnamon has been proposed for use as an insect repellent, although it remains untested.[33] Cinnamon leaf oil has been found to be very effective in killing mosquito larvae.[34] The compounds cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, eugenol, and anethole, that are contained in cinnamon leaf oil, were found to have the highest effectiveness against mosquito larvae.[34]

It is reported that regularly drinking of Cinnamomum zeylanicum tea made from the bark could be beneficial to oxidative stress related illness in humans, as the plant part contains significant antioxidant potential.[35]

Cinnamon may also be an aphrodisiac.[36] One teaspoon of Cinnamon contains as many antioxidants as a full cup of pomegranate juice and 1/2 a cup of blueberries.[citation needed]

The Cinnamon Challenge

Cinnamon is the subject of an internet meme, The Cinnamon Challenge, in which one attempts to eat a tablespoon of "cinnamon" (almost always actually cassia) without inhaling the cinnamon or vomiting. Despite thousands of video-documented attempts, few seem able to succeed. One notable challenger was the host of the television show Tosh.0, who failed.[37] Most don't seem to realize that, even if breathing through their nose, they usually inhale the cinnamon dust, resulting in a very painful and potentially dangerous experience — cinnamon irritates the airway, which could trigger a bronchospasm and cessation of breathing (apnea).[38] It takes a great deal of liquid to saturate a tablespoon of powder. This dust is easily carried in any air that is shared between the mouth and throat. Often the challengers then panic and gasp for air through their mouth, inhaling a large amount of cinnamon.[39]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Cinnamon". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2008. "(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum), bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), the neighboring Malabar Coast of India, and Myanmar (Burma), and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor." 
  2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/07/south_asia_sri_lanka0s_spice_of_life/html/1.stm
  3. ^ "Cassia, also known as cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon is a tree which has bark similar to that of cinnamon but with a rather pungent odour," remarks Maguelonne Toussant-Samat, Anthea Bell, tr. The History of Food, revised ed. 2009, p.437.
  4. ^ The Epicentre, Encyclopedia of Spices, Cinnamon, http://www.theepicentre.com/Spices/cinnamon.html, retrieved 2008-07-15 
  5. ^ Knox, Robert, An Historical Relation Of The Island Ceylon, http://www.ihaystack.com/authors/k/robert_knox/00014346_an_historical_relation_of_the_island_ceylon_in_the_e/00014346_english_iso88591_p004.htm, retrieved 2008-07-15 
  6. ^ Exodus 30:22-25
  7. ^ Proverbs 7:17
  8. ^ Song of Solomon 4:11-14
  9. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 437
  10. ^ "The Indians obtained cassia from China" (Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 437).
  11. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 437f.
  12. ^ Toussaint-Samat 2009, p. 438 discusses cinnamon's hidden origins and Joinville's report.
  13. ^ Tennent, Sir James Emerson, Account of the Island of Ceylon, http://lakdiva.org/tennent/v1_p5_c02.html#pg598, retrieved 2008-07-15 
  14. ^ Yule, Col. Henry, Cathay and the Way Thither, http://dsr.nii.ac.jp/toyobunko/III-2-F-b-2/V-1/page/0487.html.en, retrieved 2008-07-15 
  15. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1984_June/ai_3289703
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References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

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  • Corn, Charles (1998). The Scents of Eden: A Narrative of the Spice Trade. New York: Kodansha International.
  • "Cinnamon Extracts Boost Insulin Sensitivity" (2000). Agricultural Research magazine, July 2000.
  • Alan W. Archer (1988). "Determination of cinnamaldehyde, coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol in cinnamon and cassia by high-performance liquid chromatography". Journal of Chromatography 447: 272–276. doi:10.1016/0021-9673(88)90035-0. 
  • Medicinal Seasonings, The Healing Power Of Spices Book by Dr. Keith Scott
  • Department of Export Agriculture, Sri Lanka
  • Weerasinghe K D N, Liyanage M D S, Silva M A T D; "Present and future trends of cinnamon industry in Sri Lanka", discussion paper, University of Ruhunu, Sri Lanka. (2006)
  • Weerasinghe K D N, "A way forward for poverty alleviation for socially deprived areas in the cinnamon industry", monograph, University of Ruhunu, Sri Lanka.
  • Pushpitha N P G, "The design and construction of appropriate cinnamon processing device", 2006, Thesis at University of Ruhunu, Sri Lanka
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Cinnamomum verum

Cinnamomum verum, called "true cinnamon tree" or Ceylon cinnamon tree is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae, native to Sri Lanka.[2] Among other species, its inner bark is used to make cinnamon.

The old botanical synonym for the tree—Cinnamomum zeylanicum—is derived from Sri Lanka's former name, Ceylon.[3] Sri Lanka still produces 80–90% of the world's supply of Cinnamomum verum, and it is also cultivated on a commercial scale in Seychelles and Madagascar.[4]

Cinnamomum verum trees are 10–15 metres (32.8–49.2 feet) tall. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape, 7–18 cm (2.75–7.1 inches) long. The flowers, which are arranged in panicles, have a greenish color, and have a distinct odor. The fruit is a purple 1-cm drupe containing a single seed.[citation needed]

Cultivars[edit]

There are several different cultivars of Cinnamomum verum based on the taste of bark:[citation needed]

  • Type 1 Sinhala: Pani Kurundu (පැණි කුරුඳු), Pat Kurundu (පත් කුරුඳු) or Mapat Kurundu (මාපත් කුරුඳු)
  • Type 2 Sinhala: Naga Kurundu (නාග කුරුඳු)
  • Type 3 Sinhala: Pani Miris Kurundu (පැණි මිරිස් කුරුඳු)
  • Type 4 Sinhala: Weli Kurundu (වැලි කුරුඳු)
  • Type 5 Sinhala: Sewala Kurundu (සෙවල කුරුඳු)
  • Type 6 Sinhala: Kahata Kurundu (කහට කුරුඳු)
  • Type 7 Sinhala: Pieris Kurundu (පීරිස් කුරුඳු)

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved February 26, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Cinnamon". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2008. (species Cinnamomum zeylanicum), bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), the neighboring Malabar Coast of India, and Myanmar (Burma), and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. The bark is widely used as a spice due to its distinct odor. 
  3. ^ "In pictures: Sri Lanka's spice of life". BBC News. 
  4. ^ Iqbal, Mohammed (1993). "International trade in non-wood forest products: An overview". FO: Misc/93/11 - Working Paper. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS. Retrieved November 12, 2012. 

External links[edit]

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Notes

Common Names

French Guiana: cannelle. Surinam: kaneel, kaneelboom. Surinam Sranan: kaneri.

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