Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This native plant is a summer annual about 2-5' tall; it is more or less erect and branches occasionally. The stems are green or reddish green, angular, strongly veined, and hairless (or nearly so). The leaves are mostly opposite; their blades are up to 8" long and 4" across, while their petioles are up to 2" long. The leaf blades are double- or triple-pinnate, medium green, and hairless (or nearly so). The segments of the blades are ovate, lanceolate, or oblanceolate with blunt tips and wedge-shaped bottoms; the margins of these segments are irregularly cleft or dentate. Overall, the leaf blades have a fern-like appearance. The upper stems terminate in individual flowerheads on long peduncles. Each flowerhead is about ½" long and ¼" across; it has numerous disk florets in the center and 0-5 ray florets along its upper margin. The disk florets have corollas that are golden yellow and tubular in shape; each corolla has 5 tiny lobes along its upper rim. The yellow ray florets are petal-like; they are about 1/8" long and oval to oblong in shape. Some flowerheads may lack petal-like extensions of the ray florets altogether. The base of the flowerhead is surrounded by green bracts; the linear inner bracts are much longer (about 1/3" in length) than the outer bracts. The blooming period occurs during the late summer or early fall. Each flowerhead is replaced by a seedhead that is globoid in shape and spans about 1" across. The long narrow seeds (achenes) spread outward from the center in all directions. Each mature seed is linear in shape, 4-angled, and dark brown; it has 2-4 short awns at its tip. Each tiny awn has downward-pointed barbs. The root system consists of a branching taproot. This plant spreads by reseeding itself.
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Comments

The arrangement of the trident-shaped seeds into globoid seedheads is very striking. The common name derives from the appearance of these seeds. Among the many Bidens spp. in Illinois, Spanish Needles is the oddball of the group. The seeds of Spanish Needles are longer and usually more slender than those of other Bidens spp. Spanish Needles also has differently shaped leaves – they are more pinnately divided into smaller leaf segments than the leaves of other Bidens spp. (which are sometimes simple, rather than compound). Finally, Spanish Needles seems to prefer drier habitats; other Bidens spp. are more likely to be found in various wetland habitats.
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Description

Annual herb. It differs from the somewhat similar Bidens pilosa in the more finely divided leaves with narrowly lanceolate leaflets, and the yellow ray-florets.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Spanish Needles is occasional to locally common in southern and central Illinois; it is mostly absent in the northern section of the state (see Distribution Map). Habitats include open woodlands, woodland borders, savannas, thickets, rocky glades, riverbanks, weedy meadows, vacant lots, partially shaded areas along buildings, areas along railroads and roadsides, abandoned fields, and waste areas. Habitats with a history of disturbance are preferred. In Illinois, Spanish Needles is more often found in drier habitats than other species in the genus. Faunal Associations
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Distribution in Egypt

Gebel Elba.

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Global Distribution

North and south America, Europe and Asia, introduced in Africa, known from southeast Egypt, west and southern Africa.

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Bidens bipinnata var. cynapiifolia (Kunth) M. Gómez:
Ecuador (South America)
Panama (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Bidens cynapiifolia var. portoricensis O.E. Schulz:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Bidens cynapifolia Kunth:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)
Venezuela (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Bidens bipinnata L.:
Brazil (South America)
Cambodia (Asia)
Ecuador (South America)
Laos (Asia)
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)
North Korea (Asia)
Nepal (Asia)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
China (Asia)
South Korea (Asia)
Thailand (Asia)
Vietnam (Asia)
Venezuela (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Worldwide distribution

Originating in Europe and Asia, now a cosmopolitan weed.
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A cosmopolitan weed.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annuals, (15–)30–100(–150+) cm. Leaves: petioles 20–50 mm; blades rounded-deltate to ovate or lanceolate overall, (20–)30–70+ × (20–)30–60+ mm, (1–)2(–3)-pinnatisect, ultimate lobes obovate or lanceolate, 15–45+ × 10–25+ mm, bases truncate to cuneate, ultimate margins entire, sometimes ciliolate, apices rounded to acute or attenuate, faces usually glabrous, sometimes hirtellous. Heads usually borne singly, sometimes in ± corymbiform arrays. Peduncles (10–)20–50(–100) mm. Calyculi of (7–)8(–10) linear bractlets 3–5 mm, ± appressed, margins ciliate, abaxial faces usually glabrous. Involucres ± campanulate, 5–7 × 3–4(–5) mm. Phyllaries 8–12, lanceolate to linear, 4–6 mm. Ray florets 0 or 3–5+; laminae yellowish or whitish, 1–2(–3) mm. Disc florets 10–20(–30+); corollas yellowish to whitish, 2–3 mm. Cypselae red-brown, outer weakly obcompressed, 7–15 mm, inner ± 4-angled, linear to linear-fusiform, 12–18 mm, margins not ciliate, apices ± attenuate, faces 2-grooved, often tuberculate-hispidulous; pappi of (2–)3–4, erect to divergent, retrorsely barbed awns 2–4 mm. 2n = 24, 72.
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Elevation Range

900-2300 m
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Spanish Needles is occasional to locally common in southern and central Illinois; it is mostly absent in the northern section of the state (see Distribution Map). Habitats include open woodlands, woodland borders, savannas, thickets, rocky glades, riverbanks, weedy meadows, vacant lots, partially shaded areas along buildings, areas along railroads and roadsides, abandoned fields, and waste areas. Habitats with a history of disturbance are preferred. In Illinois, Spanish Needles is more often found in drier habitats than other species in the genus. Faunal Associations
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Hillsides and wadi beds; naturalized.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Spanish Needles in Illinois

Bidens bipinnata (Spanish Needles)
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, other insects suck nectar; one observation is from Krombein et al. as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus pensylvanica sn; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys sayi sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile centuncularis sn cp, Megachile inimica sayi sn; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Nomiinae): Dieunomia heteropoda (Kr)

Flies
Syrphidae: Syritta pipiens; Empididae: Empis clausa; Tachinidae: Copecrypta ruficauda

Butterflies
Pieridae: Pieris rapae

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Population Biology

Frequency

Locally common
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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bidens cf. bipinnata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bidens bipinnata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

Partial or dappled sunlight, moist to mesic conditions, and a fertile loamy soil are preferred. However, this robust plant can adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions. The size of individual plants varies significantly, depending on moisture levels and soil fertility.
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Wikipedia

Bidens

Bidens is a genus of flowering plants in the aster family, Asteraceae. The common names beggarticks, black jack, burr marigolds, cobbler's pegs, Spanish needles, stickseeds, tickseeds and tickseed sunflowers refer to the fruits of the plants, most of which are bristly and barbed, with two sharp pappi at the end. The generic name refers to the same character; Bidens comes from the Latin bis ("two") and dens ("tooth").[2]

Propagation[edit]

Bidens cypselae sticking to a sleeve

The plants are zoochorous; their seeds will stick to clothing, fur or feathers, and be carried to new habitat. This has enabled them to colonize a wide range, including many oceanic islands. Some of these species occur only in a very restricted range and several are now threatened with extinction, notably in the Hawaiian Islands. Due to the absence of native mammals on these islands, some of the oceanic island taxa have reduced burrs, evolving features that seem to aid in dispersal by the wind instead.

Distribution[edit]

Bidens is distributed throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world.[3] Most species occur in the Americas, Africa, and Polynesia, and there are some in Europe and Asia.[4] Bidens is closely related to the American genus Coreopsis, and the genera are sometimes difficult to tell apart; in addition, neither is monophyletic.[5]

On the Hawaiian Islands, Bidens are called kokoʻolau or koʻokoʻolau.[6]

Uses[edit]

Nodding beggarticks (B. cernua) and hairy beggarticks (B. pilosa) are useful as honey plants. Several Bidens species are used as food by the caterpillars of certain Lepidoptera, such as the noctuid moth Hypercompe hambletoni and the brush-footed butterfly Vanessa cardui, the Painted Lady. The Bidens mottle virus, a plant pathogen, was first isolated from B. pilosa, and it infects many other Asteraceae and plants of other families.

Diversity[edit]

The taxonomy of Bidens has been described as "chaotic",[4] and it is not clear how many taxa are included in its bounds. There are probably at least 150 to 250 species,[2][7] and some estimates fall around 230.[3][8]

Species[edit]

Species include:[2][7][9][10]

Formerly placed here[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Genus: Bidens L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2011-02-12. 
  2. ^ a b c Bidens. Flora of North America.
  3. ^ a b Bidens. New South Wales Flora Online. National Herbarium, Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney.
  4. ^ a b Ganders, F. R., et al. (2000). ITS base sequence phylogeny in Bidens (Asteraceae): Evidence for the continental relatives of Hawaiian and Marquesan Bidens. Systematic Botany 25(1) 122-33.
  5. ^ Crawford, D. J. and M. E. Mort. (2005). Phylogeny of Eastern North American Coreopsis (Asteraceae-Coreopsideae): insights from nuclear and plastid sequences, and comments on character evolution. American Journal of Botany 92(2), 330-36.
  6. ^ Carr, G. D. Bidens. Hawaiian Native Plant Genera - Asteraceae. 2006.
  7. ^ a b Bidens. Flora of China.
  8. ^ Bidens. The Jepson eFlora 2013.
  9. ^ a b "GRIN Species Records of Bidens". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-02-12. 
  10. ^ "Bidens". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-02-12. 
  11. ^ Crowe, D. R. and W. H. Parker. (1981). Hybridization and agamospermy of Bidens in northwestern Ontario. Taxon 30(4): 749-60.
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Notes

Comments

Bidens bipinnata is probably native in eastern Asia and introduced in South America, Europe, Asia, and Pacific Islands.
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