Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This is one of the most widespread species for Central Europe, where it lives in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Baltic countries, Poland, Ukraine, Northern Moldavia, Germany, Benelux countries, central France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, Cech Republic, northern Croatia, Serbia, and northern Italy (Sysoev and Schileyko 2009; Kerney et al. 1983; Gittenberger 2004).
Special attention should be paid to the Irish distribution, as the species is almost confined to the northern half of Ireland with two outlying sites in Cork where it may have a recent origin. Its range in the north of Ireland suggests that it may have originated from neighbouring areas of Scotland relatively late in the Postglacial period. A similar distribution and therefore origin is posited for Arion owenii and the carabid beetle Carabus nitens (Byrne et al. 2009).
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Range Description

The species is found only in the East-Alps in Austria and Italy.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Arianta arbustorum occurs in Europe from the Iberian Peninsula north to Scandinavia, and Iceland, and east to Ukraine. In Canada, it is known from the island of Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Ontario (Grimm et al. 2009).

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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found on calcareous scree and boulder slopes on the edge of alpine grassland.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
On the continent, this species is abundant in moist woods, there is no preferred substrate known. In the Alps, this species can even be found beyond the tree limit on alpine meadows. In Ireland, it occurs in open wet fen margins and open damp woodlands and areas at the base of limestone escarpments. As its name, copse snail, suggests, it is mainly found in woodland. It also favours rich, fenny, unimproved pasture, scrub woods and rocks in limestone or chalk areas and is rarely found in acid terrain although there are a few records of very thin-shelled forms in ancient oak woods on the quartzite rocks of Co. Londonderry (Byrne et al. 2009).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Arianta arbustorum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 235 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

GTTTSMTGARGT------------------------------------------------------------ATAGWNGGGACGGGGTTATCGTTATTAATTCGTTTTGAGCTTGGCCATGCTGGT---GTTTTAATAGAC---GATCATTTTTATAATGTTATTGTGACTGCTCATGCGTTTGTAATGATTTTTTTTATAGTAATACCTATTATAATTGGTGGGTTTGGTAACTGAATAGTGCCTTTATTAATTGGTGCTCCCGATATAAGGTTTCCTCGGATAAATAATATAAGGTTCTGACTTTTACCTCCGTCATTTTTATTATTATTGAGAAGGAGCTTAGTTGAAGGAGGGGCAGGTACAGGGTGAACGGTTTACCCTCCTTTAAGTAGTTTATTAGGTCATAGAGGGGCATCTGTAGATATAGCTATCTTTTCTCTTCACATAGCTGGTATATCTTCAATTTTAGGTGCAATTAATTTTATTACAACTATTTTTAATATACGTTCACCTGGTGTAAGTTTAGAACGAATAAGTTTATTTGTGTGATCAATTTTAATCACTGTTTTTTTACTTCTTCTTTCCCTTCCAGTTTTAGCAGGCGCAATTACTATATTATTAACTGATCGAAATTTTAGTACGTCTTTTTTTGATCCATCC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Arianta arbustorum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 235
Specimens with Barcodes: 252
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Arianta arbustorum is widespread and common in Europe. It is introduced to Canada and is known from the island of Newfoundland (first recorded in 1885), New Brunswick and Ontario (Grimm et al. 2009).

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Falkner, G., von Proschwitz, T. & Reischutz, P.

Reviewer/s
Neubert, E., Ward, J. & Cuttelod, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
Distributional and ecological data known for this species are insufficient and the taxon needs a thorough revision. However, the habitats of this alpine species are under heavily used, and enormous pressure on the species can be supposed. It is therefore listed as Near Threatened (NT).
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Falkner, G., Falkner, M., von Proschwitz, T. & Neubert, E.

Reviewer/s
Cuttelod, A., Bilz, M. & Ward, J.

Contributor/s

Justification
This is a widespread species in Europe, where it is abundant in moist wooded habitats. It lives from the lowlands up to beyond the tree limit in the Alps above 2,000 m asl. There are no threats known for this species on the continent, however, the situation for this species in Ireland needs permanent monitoring. This species is listed as Least Concern.

This species has also been assessed at the regional level as:
EU27 regional assessment: Least Concern at the level of the 27 member states of the European Union.
European regional assessment: Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The population of this species is unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Population

Population
Populations on the continent are stable. In Ireland, this is a declining species with a fragmented distribution (Byrne et al. 2009).

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The main threat to the species is exploitation of habitats for tourism and pasturing. Tourist activities like skiing, hiking, climbing lead to a serious decline of habitat quality. Another threat to this species is pasturing that might lead to alteration of the natural vegetation with adverse effects, and the intensity of land-use is supposed to be stable or even increasing in the Alps.
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Major Threats
On the continent, there are no major threats for this species; disturbed habitats are easily re-colonised. In Ireland, the threatened habitats include open wet fen margins and open damp woodlands and areas at the base of limestone escarpments.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed in the Red List for Carinthia (Austria) (1999).
Further research is required to assess the species' population and distribution and to ascertain the level of threat to the species from the exploitation of habitats for tourism. Taxonomic uncertainties surrounding the taxon need addressing.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In Ireland, this species is listed as Vulnerable (Byrne et al. 2009).
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Wikipedia

Arianta arbustorum

Arianta arbustorum is a medium-sized species of land snail, sometimes known as the "copse snail", a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Helicidae.

Subspecies[edit]

Several subspecies are recognized by some authors:

Distribution[edit]

This species is native to Europe:

Arianta arbustorum is introduced to North America, but is only known from Canada, where established populations are known from Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Ontario,[5] and Prince Edward Island.[6]

This species has not yet become established in the USA, but it is considered to represent a potentially serious threat as a pest, an invasive species which could negatively affect agriculture, natural ecosystems, human health or commerce. Therefore it has been suggested that this species be given top national quarantine significance in the USA.[7]

Description[edit]

apertural view of the shell of Arianta arbustorum (top left); lateral view (top right); apical view (bottom left) and umbilical view (bottom right)

The shell is usually brown with numerous pale yellowish rows of spots and usually with a brown band above the periphery, occasionally yellowish, reddish or with greenish hue, weakly striated and with fine spiral lines on the upper side.[2] The shell has 5-5.5 convex whorls with deep suture.[2] The last whorl is slightly descending near the aperture.[2] The aperture is with prominent white lip inside.[2] The apertural margin is reflected.[2] Umbilicus is entirely covered by the reflected columellar margin.[2]

The width of the shell is 18–25 mm.[2] The height of the shell is 12–22 mm.[2] Dimensions are locally variable.[2]

The shell shape is globular in most present-day populations, but originally is believed to have been depressed in the Pleistocene, before lowlands were invaded and shells became globular, re-invading mountain regions except some isolated spots among glaciers.[2]

The animal is usually black.[2]

Life cycle[edit]

Arianta arbustorum lives in forests and open habitats of any kind.[2] It requires humidity.[2] It lives also in disturbed habitats (not in Ireland where it is restricted to old native woodland).[2] It may locally tolerate non-calcareous substrate, in north Scotland also on sandhills.[2] In the Alps up to 2700 m, in Britain 1200 m, in Bulgaria 1500 m.[2]

It feeds on green herbs, dead animals and faeces.[2]

If snails hatched more than 50 m distant from each other, they are considered isolated since they would not move more than 25 m (neighbourhood area 32–50 m), usually they move about 7–12 m in a year, mostly along water currents.[2]

This species of snail makes and uses calcareous love darts during mating. Reproduction is usually after copulation, but self-fertilization is also possible.[2] The size of the egg is 3.2 mm.[8] Maturity is reached after 2–4 years.[2] The maximum age up to 14 years.[2]

Angiostrongylus vasorum has successfully experimentally infected this snail.[9]

References[edit]

This article incorporates public domain text from the reference.[2]

  1. ^ Linnaeus C. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. pp. [1-4], 1-824. Holmiae. (Salvius).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Species summary for Arianta arbustorum. AnimalBase, last modified 25 August 2010, accessed 8 October 2010.
  3. ^ (Dutch) Arianta arbustorum — Anemoon
  4. ^ New snail found in the Faroe Islands
  5. ^ McAlpine, D.F., Schueler, F.W., Maunder, J.E., Noseworthy, R.G., & Sollows, M.C. 2009. Establishment and persistence of the copse snail, Arianta arbustorum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: Helicidae) in Canada. The Nautilus 123(1):14-18.
  6. ^ McAlpine, D.F., & R.G. Forsyth. 2014. Occurrence of the Copse Snail, Arianta arbustorum (Helicidae) on Prince Edward Island: an addition to the North American range of a purported potential pest. Northeastern Naturalist 21(1):N5–N7.
  7. ^ Cowie R. H., Dillon R. T., Robinson D. G. & Smith J. W. (2009). "Alien non-marine snails and slugs of priority quarantine importance in the United States: A preliminary risk assessment". American Malacological Bulletin 27: 113-132. PDF.
  8. ^ Heller J.: Life History Strategies. in Barker G. M. (ed.): The biology of terrestrial molluscs. CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, 2001, ISBN 0-85199-318-4. 1-146, cited page: 428.
  9. ^ Conboy G. A. (30 May 2000) "Canine Angiostrongylosis (French Heartworm)". In: Bowman D. D. (Ed.) Companion and Exotic Animal Parasitology. International Veterinary Information Service. Accessed 24 November 2009.
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