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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Southern Arrow-Wood is very similar in appearance to Smooth Arrow-Wood (Viburnum recognitum), except its leaf undersides are more hairy and they are never whitened. Another species, Viburnum molle (Soft-Leaved Arrow-Wood), differs from Southern Arrow-Wood by having leaves that are more cordate in shape and berries that are more narrowly ovoid in shape. The leaves of Soft-Leaved Arrow-Wood also tend to have more pairs of teeth along their margins (often exceeding 20 pairs per leaf). Another similar species, Viburnum rafinesquianum (Downy Arrow-Wood), is a smaller shrub (up to 6' tall) with smaller leaves (up to 3" in length). The leaves of Downy Arrow-Wood also tend to have fewer pairs of teeth along their margins (less than 10 pairs per leaf) than those of Southern Arrow-Wood. Within the Viburnum genus, species in the Arrow-Wood group have leaves with coarse dentate teeth and their flowers are malodorous. In contrast, species in the Viburnum group have leaves with fine teeth and their flowers are sweetly scented.
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Description

This shrub is 5-15' tall, sending up multiple woody shoots from the base that branch upward and arch outward. The branches toward the center of each shrub tend to be straight.  Older shoots at the base of the shrub have gray wrinkled bark, while branches of the basal shoots have bark that is gray and more smooth. Twigs are pale brown to reddish brown, smooth, and hairless with scattered lenticels, while young stems are light green to green, angular or terete, and usually pubescent. Pairs of opposite leaves occur along the twigs and young stems. The leaves are 2-4" long and 1½-3½" across; they are cordate-ovate to nearly oval and coarsely dentate with 7-18 pairs of teeth along their margins. The upper leaf surface is yellowish green to dark green and glabrous to sparsely covered with short appressed hairs. The lower leaf surface is pale green with prominent veins and variably hairy. The typical variety of Southern Arrow-Wood has tufts of hair at the junctions of the lateral veins with the central vein on the lower surface of each leaf, while var. deamii has hairs distributed across the entire lower surface of each leaf. These hairs are short, white, slightly appressed, and either simple or stellate. The petioles are ¼-1" long, light green, and usually pubescent. At the petiole bases, there are no pairs of stipules. Flat-headed panicles of flowers about 2-4" across are produced from the tips of leafy stems or short spur-stems. The branching stalks of each panicle are light green to yellowish green and usually pubescent. Individual flowers are about ¼" across, consisting of a white corolla with 5 spreading lobes, a very short calyx with 5 teeth, 5 stamens, and a pistil with a single style. The stamens are strongly exerted from the corolla. The blooming period occurs from late spring to early summer for about 3 weeks. In each panicle, the flowers come into bloom at about the same time. The floral scent is malodorous. Afterwards, the flowers are replaced by small drupes about ¼" across that are globoid to ovoid-globoid in shape and blue-black at maturity. Each drupe contains a single stone (seed with a hard coat) that is ovoid in shape, somewhat flattened, and grooved along one side. The woody root system is shallow and branching, sometimes producing underground runners that form clonal offsets.
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Description

General: Honeysuckle family (Caprifoliaceae). Native shrubs growing 1-3 meters tall, with arching branches forming an overall rounded crown, sometimes spreading up to 2.5 meters; twigs slender, ridged and angled. Leaves deciduous, opposite, simple, oval to oblong, obovate, or elliptic, 4-10 cm long, with coarsely but regularly toothed margins, shiny dark green above, paler beneath, at least sparsely stellate-pubescent beneath and on the petioles, turning yellow to red or reddish-purple in late fall. Flowers are 5-8 mm wide, white, in flat-topped clusters 5-8 cm broad. Fruits ovoid, berry-like (drupes), 5-8 mm in diameter, bluish-black. The common name refers to the Native American use of the straight young stems as arrow shafts.

Variation within the species: Leaves of V. dentatum are stellate-pubescent in variable density on the lower surfaces and petioles. Localized geographic variants are often evident over the range of the species, with leaf shape and size often more consistent on a local or regional level than the type of vestiture. A number of varieties have been recognized – but these distinctions apparently have not been recognized among the horticultural forms.

V. dentatum var. deamii (Rehd.) Fern.

V. dentatum var. venosum (Britt.) Gleason

V. dentatum var. indianense (Rehd.) Gleason

V. dentatum var. lucidum Ait. (= V. recognitum Fern.)

V. dentatum var. scabrellum Torr. & Gray (= V. scabrellum (Torr. & Gray) Chapm.)

Viburnum recognitum has the leaves completely glabrous or sparsely strigose with simple hairs along the veins and petioles, commonly with tufts of soft, white hair in the vein axils of the lower surface. With V. dentatum, V. recognitum ranges from Texas to New England, but V. recognitum is the common form in the northern part of the range, V. dentatum in the southern part. Viburnum scabrellum is a form with broader, rougher leaves and primarily occurs in the southern part of the V. dentatum range.

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Alternative names

Southern arrow-wood, roughish arrow-wood, southern arrowwood

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Southern Arrow-Wood is native to southern Illinois, where it is rare in natural areas. In other areas of the state, it may be encountered as an escape from cultivation. Habitats include thinly wooded slopes, openings in bottomland woodlands, woodland borders, streambanks, and fence rows. This shrub is cultivated throughout the state as an ornamental landscape plant, although it rarely seems to escape. However, it may be confused with the more common Viburnum recognitum (Smooth Arrow-Wood), which is sometimes regarded as a variety of Southern Arrow-Wood. Occasional disturbance is beneficial if it reduces competition from canopy trees.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Adaptation

Open woods and margins, streambanks. Arrow-wood viburnum prefers loamy, neutral to acid soil with ample moisture, but is adaptable to a range of conditions from dry to fairly wet soil. Plants are salt-tolerant in New England coastal areas. The can grow in generally drier conditions than V. acerifolium. They most commonly occur in partial shade but can be grown in full sun. Flowering May-June; fruiting August-November.

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The Viburnum dentatum species complex is widespread in the eastern United States, from Maine to Florida and westward to Iowa and east Texas. For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Southern Arrow-Wood is native to southern Illinois, where it is rare in natural areas. In other areas of the state, it may be encountered as an escape from cultivation. Habitats include thinly wooded slopes, openings in bottomland woodlands, woodland borders, streambanks, and fence rows. This shrub is cultivated throughout the state as an ornamental landscape plant, although it rarely seems to escape. However, it may be confused with the more common Viburnum recognitum (Smooth Arrow-Wood), which is sometimes regarded as a variety of Southern Arrow-Wood. Occasional disturbance is beneficial if it reduces competition from canopy trees.
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Dispersal

Establishment

Plants may begin to produce fruits by the third year. Fruits apparently are consistently formed every year. Like related species of Viburnum, the seeds of V. dentatum probably have a cold requirement for breaking embryo dormancy. Vegetative reproduction is through short rhizomes and sprouts from the root crown.

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Associations

Faunal Associations

The unpleasantly scented flowers attract Halictid bees, Andrenid bees, flies, and beetles. Both nectar and pollen are available as floral rewards. Fly floral visitors include Syrphid flies, Dance flies (Empis spp., Rhamphomyia spp.), Tachinid flies, Chloropid flies, and others. Beetle floral visitors include long-horned beetles (Cerambycidae), leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae), Dermestid beetles, tumbling flower beetles (Mordellidae), Scarab beetles, and others. To a lesser extent, bumblebees, other long-tongued bees, butterflies, and skippers may visit the flowers for nectar. Caterpillars of the butterfly Celastrina argiolus (Spring/Summer Azure) feed destructively on the flowers and buds of Viburnum spp., while some moth caterpillars feed primarily on the foliage of these shrubs. The latter include such species as Agriopodes fallax (The Green Marvel), Calledapteryx dryopterata (Brown Scoopwing), Coleophora viburniella, Hyparpux aurora (Pink Prominent), Metaxaglaea inulta (Unsated Sallow), Schizura badia (Chestnut Schizura), and Zale horrida (Horrid Zale). Other insect feeders include Pyrrhalta viburni (Viburnum Leaf Beetle); wood-boring larvae of the long-horned beetle Oberea schaumi; the plant bugs Lygidea viburni and Lygocoris viburni; and the aphids Aphis viburniphila, Ceruraphis viburnicola, and Nearctaphis bakeri. The fruit of Southern Arrow-Wood and other Viburnum spp. are consumed to some extent by a variety of upland gamebirds and songbirds, including the Brown Thrasher, Northern Mockingbird, Pileated Woodpecker, Wild Turkey, Blue-Headed Vireo, and Swainson's Thrush (see the Bird Table for a more complete listing of these species). Mammals eat the fruit to a more limited extent; they include the Black Bear, Red Fox, Striped Skunk, Opossum, Fox Squirrel, Gray Squirrel, and White-Footed Mouse. White-Tailed Deer have been known to browse on the twigs and foliage of these shrubs, but it is not preferred as a source of food. Near bodies of water, the beaver occasionally feeds on the bark and branches and also uses them in the construction of its lodges and dams. The Indigo Bunting, Prairie Warbler, White-Eyed Vireo, and other songbirds sometimes construct nests in the branches of Viburnum spp.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

These plant materials are somewhat available from commercial sources. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Plants of arrow-wood viburnum are propagated from cuttings or seed. They are easily transplanted and free from serious problems of disease or insect pests (with the caveat below). Occasional pruning is helpful in rejuvenation and shaping. Prune off basal suckers to restrict spreading if necessary.

Viburnum leaf beetle: The viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni), native to Europe and Asia, was first encountered in North America in 1947, perhaps arriving earlier from Europe on nursery plants. It received little notice until 1978, when it caused severe defoliation of ornamental viburnums in Ontario and Quebec. It has now reached western New York and Maine and become a concern in urban landscapes and nurseries.

The adult and the larva “skeletonize” leaves by feeding on the leaves between the midrib and larger veins. Plants, which have been defoliated for 2-3 consecutive years, may be killed. The preferred host is Viburnum opulus and its selections; lesser damage is caused to V. lantana and V. rafinesquianum, V. dentatum, V. acerifolium, and V. lentago. Other species, particularly V. rhytidophyllum and V. carlesii, are relatively unaffected.

The entire life cycle of the viburnum leaf beetle takes about 8-10 weeks. Larvae hatch in early May and feed on the viburnum leaves throughout the larval period, which lasts 4-5 weeks. The larvae pupate in the soil. The adults (4.5-6.5 mm long, brown) appear by mid-July and continue eating the leaves, then mate and lay over-wintering eggs on the twigs. Egg-laying holes are in a straight line on the underside of the current season's growth.

Chemical control of the viburnum leaf beetle is best applied to young larvae, because adults will fly away or drop to the ground if disturbed. If over-wintering egg sites are found, affected wood should be pruned and destroyed before the eggs hatch. Examine upper and lower leaf surfaces for feeding larvae. Potential biological control mechanisms are being studied.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, moist to mesic conditions, and soil containing loam, silt, sand, or rocky material. This shrub has relatively few problems with disease organisms and it is easy to cultivate.
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Uses

The dense foliage, white flower clusters, and dark blue berries make arrow-wood viburnum an attractive shrub for landscaping. Various cultivars have been selected for hardiness, shape of the plant, fall foliage color (yellow or red to reddish purple), and abundance of fruit. They can be used for borders or screens or as mass plantings and groupings to attract birds, which eat the fruit. Cultivars have been selected for characteristics of the foliage, compactness of habit, flowering time, and persistence of fruits. Many species of Viburnum are cultivated (see Dirr 1997 and Floraguide 2000).

Viburnum species have been used for numerous medicinal purposes – see Alternative Medicine Foundation: HerbMed (2000) for notes and internet links on medicinal use and other health related topics

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Wikipedia

Viburnum dentatum

For other uses, see Arrowwood (disambiguation).

Viburnum dentatumsouthern arrowwood or arrowwood viburnum or roughish arrowwood — is a small shrub, native to the Eastern United States and Canada from Maine south to Northern Florida and Eastern Texas.

Like most Viburnum, it has opposite, simple leaves and fruit in berry-like drupes. Foliage turns yellow to red in late fall. Localized variations of the species are common over its entire geographic range. Common differences include leaf size and shape and placement of pubescence on leaf undersides and petioles.

Larvae of moths feed on V. dentatum. Species include the unsated sallow or arrowwood sallow (Metaxaglaea inulta) or Phyllonorycter viburnella. It is also consumed by the viburnum leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni, an invasive species from Eurasia.[2] The fruits are a food source for songbirds. Berries contain 41.3% fat.[3]

The fruits appear blue. The major pigments are cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-sambubioside and cyanidin 3-vicianoside, but the total mixture is very complex.[4]

Subspecies[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada 2nd ed. Tenth printing, 2007.(Henry A. Gleason; Arthur Cronquist) page 513
  2. ^ Viburnum leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni (Paykull) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) : Dispersal pattern of a palearctic landscape pest in New York and its distribution status in the northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada. Weston Paul A. and Hoebeke E. Richard, Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 2003, volume 105, no 4, pages 889-895, INIST:15211659
  3. ^ Fruit quality and consumption by songbirds during autumn migration. Susan B. Smith, Kathleen H. McPherson, Jeffrey M. Backer, Barbara J. Pierce, David W. Podlesak and Scott R. McWilliams, The Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 2007, volume 119, issue 3, pages 419-428, doi:10.1676/06-073.1
  4. ^ Food colorants: Anthocyanins. F.J. Francis and Pericles C. Markakis, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1989, Volume 28, Issue 4, pages 273-314, doi:10.1080/10408398909527503
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: In Kartesz 1999, V. dentatum var. lucidum is elevated to full species (V. recognitum), leaving behind a narrower treatment of V. dentatum with only two varieties, var. venosum and var. dentatum. As treated here, this is the narrow sense, excluding var. lucidum from V. dentatum.

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