Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This native woody shrub is 2-6' tall, branching occasionally. The bark of the trunk and larger branches is gray and slightly rough, while the bark of the small branches and twigs is gray or gray-brown and more smooth. Opposite pairs of leaves develop from new growth. These leaves are up to 5" long and 4" across; they are usually 3-lobed (less often unlobed), coarsely dentate, and approximately oval in shape. The lobes of the leaves have pointed tips, while the leaf bases are cordate or rounded. The upper leaf surface is medium green and hairless, while the lower surface is pale green and pubescent. The leaf petioles are pale green and pubescent. At the base of each petiole, there is usually a pair of small linear stipules, which may wither away with age. The flat-headed panicles (or compound cymes) of flowers develop from young branches. Individual panicles span about 1½–3" across. Individual flowers are about ¼" across, consisting of a white corolla with 5 petaloid lobes, a short green calyx with 5 small teeth, 5 strongly exerted stamens, and a central pistil. The blooming period occurs from late spring to mid-summer and lasts about 3 weeks. The flowers are replaced by ovoid-globoid berries about ¼" long that become blue-black at maturity. Each berry contains a single seed (or stone). The root system is woody and branching. During the fall, the leaves can assume different colors, including pink, magenta, red, or orange.
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Description

General: Honeysuckle family (Caprifoliaceae). Native shrubs 0.5-2 m high, rhizomatous and forming

thickets; twigs pubescent. Leaves deciduous, ovate or orbicular, mostly deeply 3-lobed, 5-12 cm broad, coarsely toothed, lower surface minutely black-dotted, nearly glabrous to thinly pubescent with stellate hairs. Flowers white, bisexual, 4-6 mm wide, in upright, flat-topped clusters 4-7 cm wide. Fruit berry-like (drupes), 6-8 mm long, nearly black, with a single stone.

Variation within the species:

No varieties are currently formally recognized within V. acerifolium – previous named varieties within the species have described vaguely discernible and widely overlapping geographic trends of morphological variation.

V. acerifolium var. acerifolium

V. acerifolium var. densiflorum (Chapm.) McAtee

V. acerifolium var. glabrescens Rehd.

V. acerifolium var. ovatum (Rehd.) McAtee

Distribution: Widely distributed in eastern North America, New Brunswick (rare), Quebec, and Ontario south through Wisconsin, Illinois, and Arkansas to Florida and eastward into east Texas. For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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Alternative names

Dockmackie, guelder-rose, maple-leaved arrow-wood, possum-haw, squash-berry

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Maple-Leaved Viburnum is occasional in northeast Illinois, while in the rest of the state it is rare or absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include upland rocky woodlands, upland sandy woodlands, stabilized sand dunes with woody vegetation, and rocky wooded slopes. This is an understory plant in high quality wooded habitats where the shade is not too dense.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Mapleleaf viburnum occurs from southern Ontario to Quebec, south to
eastern Texas, and east to the northern panhandle of Florida [5,9,24].
  • 5. Clewell, Andre F. 1985. Guide to the vascular plants of the Florida Panhandle. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University Press. 605 p. [13124]
  • 24. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 9. Gill, John D.; Pogge, Franz L. 1974. Viburnum L. Viburnum. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 844-850. [7775]

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Occurrence in North America

AL AR CT DE FL GA IL IN IA KS
LA ME MD MI MN MS MO NE NJ NY
NC OH OK PA RI SC TN TX VA WV
WI ON PQ

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Adaptation

Maple-leaf viburnum occurs in upland forests, hillsides, and ravine slopes. It grows best in well-drained, moist soils and is tolerant of acid soils. It requires partial shading for optimum growth and development and occurs primarily in mid- to late-seral communities. It is a common understory species in beech-maple forests in the northeastern and midwestern United States; along the Gulf coastal plain, it is found in rich deciduous woods, often with white oak. Flowering May-August; fruiting July-October.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the term: shrub

Mapleleaf viburnum is a large, deciduous, rhizomatous shrub from 3 to 6
feet (1-2 m) tall [11,24]. It has a straight trunk with spreading,
ascending branches, and forms dense thickets. The maple-like leaves
are 3 to 5 inches (7.5-12.5 cm) long. The flowers are arranged in flat
upright clusters. The fruit is a one-seeded drupe [4,10].
  • 10. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 11. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 24. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 4. Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p. [12766]

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Maple-Leaved Viburnum is occasional in northeast Illinois, while in the rest of the state it is rare or absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include upland rocky woodlands, upland sandy woodlands, stabilized sand dunes with woody vegetation, and rocky wooded slopes. This is an understory plant in high quality wooded habitats where the shade is not too dense.
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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: codominant

Mapleleaf viburnun is a dominant or codominant understory species in
many beech-maple (Fagus-Acer) forests in the northeastern and midwestern
United States [6,17,25].
  • 6. Eggler, Willis A. 1938. The maple-basswood forest type in Washburn County, Wisconsin. Ecology. 19(2): 243-263. [6907]
  • 17. Nichols, George E. 1913. The vegetation of Connecticut. II. Virgin forests. Torreya. 13(9): 199-215. [14069]
  • 25. Wilm, H. G. 1936. The relation of successional development to the silviculture of forest burn communities in southern New York. Ecology. 17(2): 283-291. [3483]

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Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest
K097 Southeastern spruce - fir forest
K099 Maple - basswood forest
K100 Oak - hickory forest
K101 Elm - ash forest
K102 Beech - maple forest
K103 Mixed mesophytic forest
K104 Appalachian oak forest
K106 Northern hardwoods
K107 Northern hardwoods - fir forest
K108 Northern hardwoods - spruce forest
K111 Oak - hickory - pine forest
K112 Southern mixed forest

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Habitat characteristics

Mapleleaf viburnum occurs in upland forests, woodlands, ravine slopes,
and hillsides [12,15,21]. It occurs in well-drained, moist soils and is
particularly tolerant of acid soils [4,9].

Common understory associates of mapleleaf viburnum include witchhazel
(Hamamelis virginiana), mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia), eastern
hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), low sweet blueberry (Vaccinium
angustifolium), Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia),
sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum)
[15,17,25].
  • 4. Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p. [12766]
  • 9. Gill, John D.; Pogge, Franz L. 1974. Viburnum L. Viburnum. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 844-850. [7775]
  • 12. Host, George E.; Pregitzer, Kurt S. 1992. Geomorphic influences on ground-flora and overstory composition in upland forests of northwestern lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 22: 1547-1555. [19671]
  • 15. Lutz, H. J. 1930. The vegetation of Heart's Content, a virgin forest in northwestern Pennsylvania. Ecology. 11(1): 2-29. [14480]
  • 17. Nichols, George E. 1913. The vegetation of Connecticut. II. Virgin forests. Torreya. 13(9): 199-215. [14069]
  • 21. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 25. Wilm, H. G. 1936. The relation of successional development to the silviculture of forest burn communities in southern New York. Ecology. 17(2): 283-291. [3483]

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Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES10 White - red - jack pine
FRES11 Spruce - fir
FRES13 Loblolly - shortleaf pine
FRES14 Oak - pine
FRES15 Oak - hickory
FRES17 Elm - ash - cottonwood
FRES18 Maple - beech - birch
FRES19 Aspen - birch

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Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

5 Balsam fir
14 Northern pin oak
15 Red pine
17 Pin cherry
20 White pine - northern red oak - red maple
21 Eastern white pine
22 White pine - hemlock
23 Eastern hemlock
25 Sugar maple - beech - yellow birch
26 Sugar maple - basswood
27 Sugar maple
28 Black cherry - maple
30 Red spruce - yellow birch
31 Red spruce - sugar maple - beech
32 Red spruce
33 Red spruce - balsam fir
34 Red spruce - Fraser fir
35 Paper birch - red spruce - balsam fir
39 Black ash - American elm - red maple
42 Bur oak
43 Bear oak
44 Chestnut oak
46 Eastern redcedar
58 Yellow-poplar - eastern hemlock
59 Yellow-poplar - white oak - northern red oak
60 Beech - sugar maple
62 Silver maple - American elm
75 Shortleaf pine
76 Shortleaf pine - oak
78 Virginia pine - oak
93 Sugarberry - American elm - green ash
107 White spruce
108 Red maple

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Dispersal

Establishment

Maple-leaf viburnum begins seed production at about 2 years of age and produces abundant fruit every year. Most seeds have an impermeable seedcoat and embryo dormancy that requires a warm-cold stratification sequence to be broken. Vegetative reproduction through rhizomes is extensive.

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Associations

Faunal Associations

The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract Halictid bees, Andrenid bees, miscellaneous other bees, Syrphid flies, Dance flies (Empididae), and miscellaneous other flies. To a lesser extent, the flowers are also visited by wasps, beetles, butterflies, and skippers. The caterpillars of several moths feed on Viburnums (primarily the foliage); see the Moth Table for a listing of these species. Other insect feeders include the caterpillars of the butterfly Celastrina argiolus (Spring/Summer Azure), the introduced Pyrrhalta viburni (Viburnum Leaf Beetle), the wood-boring larvae of Oberea deficiens (Long-Horned Beetle sp.) and Oberea tripunctata (Dogwood Twig Borer), and several aphid species. Viburnum berries are eaten by the Ruffed Grouse and many woodland songbirds (see Bird Table). To a lesser extent, these berries are also eaten by the White-Footed Mouse, Woodland Deer Mouse, Eastern Chipmunk, and various tree squirrels. White-Tailed Deer may browse on the twigs and leaves.
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General Ecology

Urban Ecology

This species is included in the New York Metropolitan Flora Project of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Click here more information, including a distribution map for the metro New York area (link to NYMF).

This species is grown by the Greenbelt Native Plants Center on Staten Island, NY. This facility is part of the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation and its purpose is to support and promote the use of native species in planting projects. For more information, go to: http://www.nycgovparks.org/greening/greenbelt-native-plant-center.

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the term: frequency

Following a prescibed fire in a pine-mixed woodwood forest in Ontario,
mapleleaf viburnum decreased in both frequency and biomass [20].
  • 20. Sidhu, S. S. 1973. Early effects of burning and logging in pine-mixed woods. I. Frequency and biomass of minor vegetation. Inf. Rep. PS-X-46. Chalk River, ON: Canadian Forestry Service, Petawawa Forest Experiment Station. 47 p. [7901]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

Presumably, fire top-kills the aerial portions of mapleleaf viburnum.

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: rhizome, shrub

Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)

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Fire Ecology

More info for the term: top-kill

Mapleleaf viburnum is not well adapted to fire. Fire is harmful to
mapleleaf viburnum at both short and long return intervals [3].

Presumably, low- to moderate-severity fires top-kill mapleleaf
viburnum. It probably survives fire by sprouting from underground
rhizomes.
  • 3. Brown, James H., Jr. 1960. The role of fire in altering the species composition of forests in Rhode Island. Ecology. 41(2): 310-316. [5935]

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Regeneration Processes

Mapleleaf viburnum begins to produce seed at approximately 2 years of
age, and produces large amounts of seed every year. The seed is
dispersed by animals and by gravity [9].

Most mapleleaf viburnum seeds have an impermeable seedcoat and exhibit
embryo dormancy that requires a warm-cold stratification sequence to be
broken [9].

Mapleleaf viburnum probably reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes [19].
  • 9. Gill, John D.; Pogge, Franz L. 1974. Viburnum L. Viburnum. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 844-850. [7775]
  • 19. Roberts, Mark R.; Christensen, Norman L. 1988. Vegetation variation among mesic successional forest stands in northern lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66(6): 1080-1090. [14479]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phanerophyte

Phanerophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: shrub

Shrub

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

Facultative Seral Species

Mapleleaf viburnum is a mid- to late-seral species [16,19]. It is shade
tolerant and requires partial shading for optimum growth and development
[9,14].
  • 14. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376]
  • 9. Gill, John D.; Pogge, Franz L. 1974. Viburnum L. Viburnum. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 844-850. [7775]
  • 16. Milne, Bruce T. 1985. Upland vegetational gradients and post-fire succession in the Albany Pine Bush, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 112(1): 21-34. [8682]
  • 19. Roberts, Mark R.; Christensen, Norman L. 1988. Vegetation variation among mesic successional forest stands in northern lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66(6): 1080-1090. [14479]

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Mapleleaf viburnum flowers from May to August, depending on location.
Fruits ripen from July to October [9,11].
  • 11. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 9. Gill, John D.; Pogge, Franz L. 1974. Viburnum L. Viburnum. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 844-850. [7775]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Viburnum acerifolium

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Viburnum acerifolium

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

These plant materials are readily available from commercial sources. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Low- to moderate-severity fires top-kill maple-leaf viburnum. It apparently survives fire by sprouting from underground rhizomes, but these are shallow and easily damaged and the species decreases with exposure to repeated fires.

Viburnum leaf beetle: The viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni), native to Europe and Asia, was first encountered in North America in 1947, perhaps arriving earlier from Europe on nursery plants. It received little notice until 1978, when it caused severe defoliation of ornamental viburnums in Ontario and Quebec. It has now reached western New York and Maine and become a concern in urban landscapes and nurseries.

The adult and the larva “skeletonize” leaves by feeding on the leaves between the midrib and larger veins. Plants, which have been defoliated for 2-3 consecutive years, may be killed. The preferred host is Viburnum opulus and its selections; lesser damage is caused to V. lantana and V. rafinesquianum, V. dentatum, V. acerifolium, and V. lentago. Other species, particularly V. rhytidophyllum and V. carlesii, are relatively unaffected.

The entire life cycle of the viburnum leaf beetle takes about 8-10 weeks. Larvae hatch in early May and feed on the viburnum leaves throughout the larval period, which lasts 4-5 weeks. The larvae pupate in the soil. The adults (4.5-6.5 mm long, brown) appear by mid-July and continue eating the leaves, then mate and lay overwintering eggs on the twigs. Egg-laying holes are in a straight line on the underside of the current season's growth.

Chemical control of the viburnum leaf beetle is best applied to young larvae, because adults will fly away or drop to the ground if disturbed. If over-wintering egg sites are found, affected wood should be pruned and destroyed before the eggs hatch. Examine upper and lower leaf surfaces for feeding larvae. Potential biological control mechanisms are being studied.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is dappled sunlight to light shade, mesic to dry conditions, and a somewhat acidic soil that is rocky or sandy. This shrub will adapt to fertile loamy soil, but it is more likely to be displaced by taller shrubs.
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Research Use

There are not many studies done specifically on V. acerifolium. Many include this species as a typical native of the US in ecological surveys that document changes in distribution (see Greller et al. 1990 for example). Specific studies on V. acerifolium include an examination of nutrient dynamics under drought conditions (Minoletti and Boerner 1994) and seed dormancy (Hidayati et al. 2005). A phylogeny of the Viburnum genus based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA was conducted by Donoghue et al. in 2004.

Donoghue MJ, BG Baldwin, JH Li, and RC Winkworth. 2004. Viburnum phylogeny based on chloroplast trnK intron and nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Systematic Botany. 29(1):188-198.

Greller AM, DC Locke, V Kilanowski, and GE Lotowycz. 1990. Changes in vegetation composition and soil acidity between 1922 and 1985 at a site on the north shore of Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 117(4):450-458.

Hidayati SN, JM Baskin, and CC Baskin. 2005. Epicotyl dormancy in Viburnum acerifolium (Caprifoliaceae). American Midland Naturalist. 153(2):232-244.

Minoletti ML and REJ Boerner. 1994. Drought and site fertility effects on foliar nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics and nutrient resorption by the forest understory shrub Vibernum acerifolium L. American Midland Naturalist. 131(1):109-119.

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Cover Value

More info for the term: cover

The dense undergrowth of mapleleaf viburnum provides good nesting and
escape cover for numerous species of birds and small mammals [9,24].
  • 24. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]
  • 9. Gill, John D.; Pogge, Franz L. 1974. Viburnum L. Viburnum. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 844-850. [7775]

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Other uses and values

Mapleleaf viburnum has been cultivated since 1736 for its attractive
flowers and foliage [24].
  • 24. Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of the Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 1104 p. [7707]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

The fruits of mapleleaf viburnum are eaten by white-tailed deer,
rabbits, mice, skunks, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasants, wild
turkeys, and many species of songbirds [1,9]. The twigs, bark, and
leaves are eaten by white-tailed deer, moose, rabbits, and beavers [9].
  • 1. Baird, John W. 1980. The selection and use of fruit by birds in an eastern forest. Wilson Bulletin. 92(1): 63-73. [10004]
  • 9. Gill, John D.; Pogge, Franz L. 1974. Viburnum L. Viburnum. In: Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington: U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 844-850. [7775]

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Uses

Deer, rabbits, mice, skunks, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasants, wild turkeys, and many species of songbirds eat the fruits of maple-leaf viburnum. Deer, moose, rabbits, and beavers eat the twigs, bark, and leaves. The relatively low-growing plants provide good nesting and escape cover for birds and small mammals.

Maple-leaf viburnum has long been cultivated for its attractive summer flowers and foliage; then the autumn leaves turn rose-purple and contrast with the mature dark fruits. The plants will thrive in moist soils and a range of light conditions but they are a good choice for dry soils in deep shade. They can be used along forest edges, streamsides, and lakeshores.

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Wikipedia

Viburnum acerifolium

Viburnum acerifolium (Maple-leaf Viburnum or Dockmackie) is a species of Viburnum, native to eastern North America from southwestern Quebec and Ontario south to northern Florida and eastern Texas.

It is a shrub growing to 1-2 m tall. The leaves are in opposite pairs, 5-10 cm long and broad, three- to five-lobed, the lobes with a serrated margin. The flowers are white with five small petals, produced in terminal cymes 4-8 cm diameter. The fruit is a small red to purple drupe 4-8 mm long. It attracts butterflies and birds. The Viburnum acerifolium is a larval host to the Spring Azure butterfly.

The scientific and common names refer to the superficial similarity of the leaves to those of some maples (Acer); the plant is occasionally mistaken for young maples, but is readily distinguished by the flowers and fruit; the viburnum produces small, purple berries, while maples produce dry, winged seeds.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Viburnum acerifolium". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2007-07-06. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Varieties not recognized within Viburnum acerifolium by Kartesz in his 1999 floristic synthesis.

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Common Names

mapleleaf viburnum
dockmackie
mapleleaved arrow-wood
possum-haw
squash-berry
guelder-rose

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The currently accepted scientific name for mapleleaf viburnum is
Viburnum acerifolium L. [11]. Two intergrading varieties are
recognized: V. a. var. acerifolium and V. a. var. glabrescens Rehd.
[2].
  • 11. Godfrey, Robert K. 1988. Trees, shrubs, and woody vines of northern Florida and adjacent Georgia and Alabama. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 734 p. [10239]
  • 2. Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press. 362 p. [12914]

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