Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

P. margaritifera is most easily separated from other members of the genus by the arrangement of photophores in the tentacles and the structure of the hectocotylus.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Tentacle photophores

      Figure. Schematic illustration of the tentacle of P. margaritifera showing photophores. Drawing by R. Young.

    1. Three large, ellipsoidal photophores (all are double photophores).
      1. Most distal member well proximal to base of carpal cluster (i.e., distance between this photophore and distal, spherical photophore much greater than distance between distal two ellipsoidal photophores).
    2. Three smaller, spherical photophores, two at base of tentacular stalk and one at base of club.
    3. Spherical to ovoid superficial photophore absent.
    4. Figure. Tentacle of P. margaritifera (unfixed) with white arrows indicating positions of photophores. The yellow arrows point to violet pigment associated with the basal tentacle and club photophores. In the former, the pigment lies in the extension of the lateral membrane of arm IV which, presumably, covers the photophore under normal conditions. In the later case, the pigment lies in the integument of the aboral surface of the club.

  2. Hectocotylus (right arm IV) with:
    1. 13-19 proximal hooks.
    2. Each proximal hook large with primary cusp bearing smooth inner edge and large, rounded secondary cusp.
    3. Fleshy, elongate pad (unlike flap in other species) distal to proximal hooks.
    4. 3 hooks opposite flap.
    5. 0-13 suckers at tip.
      Figure. Medial view of the hectocotylus of P. margaritifera. Drawing from Chun (1910).
  3. Comments

    Compare the following structures with other species of Pyroteuthis:

    Characters of value for species identification have not yet been recognized on the tentacular club.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Northern limit is New England/Nova Scotia
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

circum-(sub)tropical
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Range Description

This species is widely distributed in the Mediterranean Sea, North and South Atlantic, southeastern Indian, and central and South Pacific ocean, but see taxonomic notes (Young and Mangold 1996, Young et al. 1998).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Vertical distribution

Off Bermuda, P. margaritifera is found mostly at depths of 375-500 m during the day and 75-175 m at night (Roper and Young, 1975.

Geographical distribution

P. margaritifera was first described from the Mediterranean Sea (Rüppell, 1844). It is widely distributed throughout the tropical and temperate Atlantic, Indian and South Pacific Oceans but is absent from the eastern Pacific (Nesis, 1982/87). This map shows the general localities (white circles) where P. margaritifera has been captured. (Distribution records listed here).

Geographical variation

Specimens taken outside the North Atlantic show considerable variation. Nesis (1982/87) noted the following variation in Pacific Ocean populations in the number of tentacle-photophores:

  • Squids from the equatorial and western central Pacific have 6 to 8 photophores (usually 7) but lack the small number 2 photophore.
  • Squids from the Kuroshio Current have 6 photophores and lack the small number 2 photophore.
  • Squids from southern and southwestern Australian waters have 6 photophores, including the small number 2 photophore.

None of these forms seem to fit P. serrata (Riddell, 1985) which was described subsequent to Nesis' book. The systematic status of these forms is unresolved.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Known from seamounts and knolls
  • Stocks, K. 2009. Seamounts Online: an online information system for seamount biology. Version 2009-1. World Wide Web electronic publication.
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

mesopelagic
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Off Bermuda, this species appears to undergo diel vertical migration occuring between 75 and 150 m at night before descending to deeper depths (375-500 m) during the day (Young and Mangold 1996). Like P. gemmata and other members of the family, this species probably has a short life cycle (Lindgren et al. 2008).

Systems
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 441 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 426 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 18.5 - 3500
  Temperature range (°C): 2.336 - 24.978
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.089 - 36.208
  Salinity (PPS): 34.240 - 39.011
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.856 - 6.275
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.028 - 2.448
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.705 - 57.898

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 18.5 - 3500

Temperature range (°C): 2.336 - 24.978

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.089 - 36.208

Salinity (PPS): 34.240 - 39.011

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.856 - 6.275

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.028 - 2.448

Silicate (umol/l): 0.705 - 57.898
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pyroteuthis margaritifera

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.

Reviewer/s
Young, R., Vecchione, M. & Böhm, M.

Contributor/s
Duncan, C.

Justification
Pyroteuthis margaritifera has been assessed as Least Concern, as it is an oceanic species with a wide geographic distribution, making it less susceptible to human impact. However, further research is recommended in order to determine the taxonomy, precise distribution, population dynamics, life history and ecology, and potential threat processes affecting this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
There is no population information available for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
The threats to this species are not known.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Further research is recommended in order to determine the taxonomy, precise distribution, population dynamics, life history and ecology, and potential threat processes affecting this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Pyroteuthis margaritifera

Pyroteuthis margaritifera, the jewel enope squid, is a species of squid in the family Pyroteuthidae.

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!