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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Mediterranean Region"
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Nilgiri"
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Distribution: Endemic to Pakistan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrub or small tree, 3-5 m tall. Stem crooked, branches erect to spreading, hoary pubescent when young. Leaves narrowly lanceolate or oblong-elliptic, 1.2-5.5 cm long, 0.5-1.2 cm broad, attenuate at the base into a minute petiole, acute to subobtuse, whitish-papillate and minutely hairy or glabrescent beneath, veins and veinlets indistinct. Racemes 8-12 mm long, with a terminal female flower surrounded by very closely arranged male flowers. Sepals somewhat oblong, 2-3 mm long, bilobed at apex. Stamens c. 5 mm long, exserted, anthers c. 2 mm long. Ovary slightly triangular, c. 2 mm long; styles as long as ovary; pistillode c. 1.5 mm long in male flowers. Capsule trilocular, ovoid-oblong, walnut brown, c. 8 mm long, c. 5 mm in diameter, horns c. 2 mm long, upright. Seeds oblong, c. 4 mm long, c. 3 mm wide.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Actinocladium anamorph of Actinocladium rhodosporum is saprobic on rotten wood of Buxus sempervirens

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, pushing up and splitting epidermis conidioma of Blennoria coelomycetous anamorph of Blennoria buxi is saprobic on twig (small) of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 12-6

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Brachysporium dematiaceous anamorph of Brachysporium britannicum is saprobic on rotten wood of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
stromatic, immersed, multi-level perithecium of Camarops lutea is saprobic on dead stump of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 8-4

Foodplant / saprobe
Chaetopsina anamorph of Chaetopsina fulva is saprobic on dead Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Coniophora arida is saprobic on decayed wood of Buxus sempervirens
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Cylindrocladium dematiaceous anamorph of Cylindrocladium buxicola infects and damages live leaf of Buxus sempervirens

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Dendrothele acerina is associated with living bark (trunk) of Buxus sempervirens
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Dendrothele commixta is saprobic on dead, attached twig of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / spinner
larva (larger) of Diaphania perspectalis spins live, spun together leaf of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / feeds on
Diplodia coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodia buxi feeds on Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / feeds on
Diplodia coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodia buxi var. minor feeds on Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, then splitting epidermis conidioma of Dothiorella coelomycetous anamorph of Dothiorella candollei is saprobic on dead leaf of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
resupinate fruitbody of Eichleriella deglubens is saprobic on fallen branch of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / gall
Eriophyes buxi causes gall of inflorescence of Buxus sempervirens
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / gall
Eriophyes canestrini causes gall of inflorescence of Buxus sempervirens
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidiopsis effusa is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Buxus sempervirens
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, small clustered perithecium of Gibberella buxi is saprobic on dead twig of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 10-1

Foodplant / sap sucker
Gonocerus acuteangulatus sucks sap of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, gregarious pycnidium of Sarcophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Guignardia miribelii is saprobic on dead twig (terminal) of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Hymenochaete corrugata parasitises live wood of Buxus sempervirens
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodermella corrugata is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia rimosissima is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / pathogen
Hyponectria buxi infects and damages live leaf of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Dendryphiopsis dematiaceous anamorph of Kirschsteiniothelia aethiops is saprobic on decorticate branch of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 12-4

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmius buxi is saprobic on dead, attached leaf of Buxus sempervirens
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Gonytrichum dematiaceous anamorph of Melanopsammella inaequalis is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 1-12

Plant / epiphyte
Metzgeria fruticulosa s.s. grows on live leaf of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Micromphale foetidum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed stick of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial mycelium of Microthyrium ciliatum var. hederae is saprobic on dead leaf of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
amphigenous thyriothecium of Microthyrium macrosporum is saprobic on bleached, dead leaf of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 12-1

Foodplant / gall
larva of Monarthropalpus buxi causes gall of leaf of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / feeds on
few, scattered or grouped, amphigenous pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Mycosphaerella buxicola feeds on live leaf, esp margin of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, clustered perithecium of Nectria desmazieri is saprobic on dead branch of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 2-4

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Pachnocybe anamorph of Pachnocybe albida is saprobic on rotting log of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora boidinii is saprobic on dead wood of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora proxima is saprobic on live trunk of Buxus sempervirens
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiella pseudotsugae is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Buxus sempervirens
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
somewhat scattered, covered by epidermis whih splits longitudinally pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis stictica is saprobic on dead branch of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 11-4

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous Phyllactinia guttata parasitises live leaf of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta causes spots on live leaf of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta buxina causes spots on live leaf of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 8

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus podospileus is saprobic on dead, fallen, very decayed trunk of Buxus sempervirens
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Polyporus tuberaster is saprobic on dead, fallen branch of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Postia subcaesia is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed stick of Buxus sempervirens
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, hypophyllous sporodochium of Volutella anamorph of Pseudonectria rousseliana is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 11-3

Foodplant / gall
Psylla buxi causes gall of shoot tip of Buxus sempervirens
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous telium of Puccinia buxi parasitises live leaf of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 9-10 and over-wintering
Other: sole host/prey
major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Geniculosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Rosellinia buxi is saprobic on wood (base of bush) of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sesquicillium anamorph of Sesquicillium buxi is saprobic on dead leaf of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmiella parva is saprobic on dead Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 9

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium adscendens is saprobic on rotten wood of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 1

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium altum is saprobic on bark of Buxus sempervirens
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stypella crystallina is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Buxus sempervirens

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stypella legonii is saprobic on dead, soft, decayed branch of Buxus sempervirens
Other: minor host/prey

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl.Per.: January-May.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Buxus sempervirens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Buxus sempervirens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Buxus sempervirens

Buxus sempervirens (common box, European box, or boxwood), is a species of flowering plant in the genus Buxus, native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia, from southern England south to northern Morocco, and east through the northern Mediterranean region to Turkey.[1][2][3] Buxus colchica of western Caucasus and B. hyrcana of northern Iran and eastern Caucasus are commonly treated as synonyms of B. sempervirens.[4][5]

Description[edit]

Buxus sempervirens is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 1–9 m (3 ft 3 in–29 ft 6 in) tall, with a trunk up to 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in diameter (exceptionally to 10 m tall and 45 cm diameter[6]). Arranged in opposite pairs along the stems, the leaves are green to yellow-green, oval, 1.5–3 cm long, and 0.5–1.3 cm broad. The hermaphrodite flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-yellow, with no petals, and are insect pollinated; the fruit is a three-lobed capsule containing 3-6 seeds.[1][3]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The species typically grows on soils derived from chalk, limestone, usually as an understorey in forests of larger trees, most commonly associated with Fagus sylvatica forests, but also sometimes in open dry montane scrub, particularly in the Mediterranean region. Box Hill, Surrey is named after its notable box population, which comprises the largest area of native box woodland in England.[7][8]

The species is locally naturalised in parts of North America.[9]

Cultivation[edit]

Box topiary in the garden of Alden Biesen Castle, Belgium

In Britain, three burials of the Roman era featured coffins lined with sprays of the evergreen box, a practice unattested elsewhere in Europe.[10]

Box remains a very popular ornamental plant in gardens, being particularly valued for topiary and hedges because of its small leaves, evergreen nature, tolerance of close shearing, and scented foliage. The scent is not to everyone's liking: the herbalist John Gerard found it "evill and lothsome" and at Hampton Court Palace Queen Anne had box hedging grubbed up because the odor was offensive, Daniel Defoe tells.[11]

Several cultivars have been selected, including 'Argenteo-variegata' and 'Marginata' with variegated foliage; such "gilded box" received a first notice in John Parkinson's Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris (1629).[12] 'Vardar Valley', a slow-growing particularly hardy semi-dwarf cultivar,[13][14] was selected in 1935 by the American botanist Edward Anderson in the upper Vardar valley and sent to the Arnold Arboretum for evaluation.[15]

The following varieties and cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

Timber[edit]

Slow growth of box renders the wood ("boxwood") very hard (possibly the hardest in Europe) and heavy, and free of grain produced by growth rings, making it ideal for cabinet-making, the crafting of clarinets, engraving, marquetry, woodturning, tool handles, mallet heads and as a substitute for ivory. The noted English engraver Thomas Bewick pioneered the use of boxwood blocks for engraving.[3][14][18]

Other uses[edit]

The leaves were formerly used in place of quinine, and as a fever reducer.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  2. ^ Flora Europaea: Buxus sempervirens
  3. ^ a b c British Trees: Buxus sempervirens
  4. ^ GRIN Taxonomy for Plants – Buxus sempervirens
  5. ^ Med-Checklist: Buxus colchica
  6. ^ Tree Register of the British Isles
  7. ^ Mitchell, A. F. (1974). A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6
  8. ^ Bean, W. J. (1976). Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles 8th ed., vol. 1. John Murray ISBN 0-7195-1790-7.
  9. ^ "PLANTS Profile". Retrieved 2007-03-14. 
  10. ^ H. Goodwin, History of the British Flora (1956) noted in Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Buxus".
  11. ^ Defoe, A Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain (1724), noted in Todd Longstaffe-Gowan and Vivian Russell, The Gardens and Parks at Hampton Court Palace (2005:87); the authors suggest that simplification of the fussy Dutch designs to suit an English taste for plain lawn and gravel was actually the major motive (pp 84ff).
  12. ^ Parkinson asserts in his Theatrum Botanicum (1640) that the "gilded" box "hath not been mentioned by any Writer before me": quoted in Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Buxus".
  13. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  14. ^ a b Plants for a Future: Buxus sempervirens
  15. ^ John L. Creech, note in Coats 1992.
  16. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Buxus sempervirens 'Elegantissima'". Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  17. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Buxus sempervirens 'Latifolia Maculata'". Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  18. ^ a b Pg.171, Lawrence, E., ed. (1985) The Illustrated Book of Trees & Shrubs. Gallery Books ISBN 0-8317-8820-8.
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Notes

Comments

Common in foothills in Punjab, N.W.F.P. and Baluchistan usually between 650-3000 m.

The wood is similar to that of the next species but is used as a fuel only due to crooked nature of the stem.

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