Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This is a rather inconspicuous plant even while it is blooming. Corn Gromwell resembles many other weeds with small white flowers, but it has a distinguishing characteristic that sets it apart
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Description

This adventive plant is a winter annual or biennial about ½–2' tall, branching very little except at the base. The round stems are more or less hairy. The alternate leaves are up to 1½" long and ¼" across. They are oblanceolate, lanceolate-oblong, or oblong-linear, and sessile at the base. The upper surface of each leaf has a single central vein, but radiating side veins are not visible. The leaves are more or less pubescent, although they occasionally have longer white hairs. Their margins are smooth and ciliate. The nearly sessile flowers develop from the axils of the leaves in the upper portion of the stems. They are bunched together while in bloom or at the bud stage, but become more separated from each other as the flowering stems continue to elongate. Each flower is about ¼" long, consisting of a tubular white corolla with 5 small lobes and a hairy green calyx with 5 teeth that are linear-lanceolate. These teeth are about as long as the corolla. There are 5 stamens and a pistil that are inserted within the narrow throat of the corolla. The blooming period can occur from mid-spring to mid-summer and lasts about 2 months. Each flower is replaced by 4 nutlets. A nutlet is truncate at the base and tapers to a blunt round tip at the top. It is broadest a little below the middle, and has a greyish brown surface that is rough and wrinkled. The root system consists of a taproot. This plant spreads by reseeding itself.
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Corn Gromwell is occasional to locally common in most areas of Illinois, except in the NW and SE, where it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). It is adventive from Eurasia. Habitats include cropland consisting of winter wheat or rye, fallow fields, vacant lots, grassy areas along roadsides and railroads, and miscellaneous waste areas. This weed occurs primarily in fields or along railroads, but it also appears in run-down areas of cities. Corn Gromwell prefers disturbed areas, and doesn't invade high quality natural sites to any significant degree.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: S. Europe, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, eastward to Kashmir, Japan.
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Europe, W. Asia, Himalaya, east to China & Japan.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Annual herb up to 40 cm long. Stem branched from the base, antrorsely hairy: hairs from a swollen base. Leaves antrorsely hairy, middle and upper leaves 10-30 x 4-6 mm, oblanceolate to lanceolate; basal leaves similar but larger, deciduous. Flowers in terminal racemes, subsessile. Pedicel up to 2.5 mm long, pubescent. Calyx hairy, lobes 5-6 mm long, linear. Corolla tubular to infundibuli-form, pale blue to white, antrorsely hairy to the outside; tube 3.8-4.5 mm long, sparsely hairy internally to about middle; limb 4 mm broad, lobes oblong-ovate. Anthers c. 1 mm long, narrowly oblong, prominently apiculate, subsessile, attached on lower half of tube. Nutlets 2.5 mm long, ± pear shaped, gray to brown, tuberculate, areola slender.
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Elevation Range

2500-2900 m
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Description

Herbs annual. Roots with purple dye. Stems usually single, branched from base or only above, 15-30 cm tall, short strigose. Leaf blade oblanceolate to linear, 2-4 cm × 3-7 mm, short strigose, apex acute. Cymes terminal, to 10 cm; bracts same shape as leaves but smaller. Flowers sparse, short pedicellate. Calyx lobes usually erect, linear, 4-5.5 mm, to 1.1 cm in fruit, short strigose on both sides, base becoming slightly hardened. Corolla white, sometimes blue or light blue, salverform; tube ca. 4 mm, sparsely pubescent outside; throat with 5 bands of hair extending to tube; limb ca. 1/2 as long as tube; lobes somewhat unequal, erect to slightly spreading, ovate or oblong, ca. 1.5 mm. Stamens attached below middle of tube; anthers oblong, ca. 1 mm. Style 1.5-2 mm; stigma capitate. Nutlets gray-brown, triangular-ovoid, ca. 3 mm, finely tuberculate. Fl. and fr. Apr-Aug. 2n = 14, 28, 36, 42.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Buglossoides arvensis (Linnaeus) I. M. Johnston; Rhytispermum arvense (Linnaeus) Link.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Corn Gromwell is occasional to locally common in most areas of Illinois, except in the NW and SE, where it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). It is adventive from Eurasia. Habitats include cropland consisting of winter wheat or rye, fallow fields, vacant lots, grassy areas along roadsides and railroads, and miscellaneous waste areas. This weed occurs primarily in fields or along railroads, but it also appears in run-down areas of cities. Corn Gromwell prefers disturbed areas, and doesn't invade high quality natural sites to any significant degree.
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Habitat & Distribution

Hills, pastures, mountain slopes, margins of cultivated ground. Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Xinjiang, Zhejiang [Afghanistan, N India, Japan, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia, Europe]
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Associations

Faunal Associations

Little information is available about floral-faunal relations for this species. According to Muller of 19th century Germany, the flowers of Corn Gromwell have few insect visitors. Occasionally, they attracted White butterflies, bees, and Syrphid flies.
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Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Golovinomyces cynoglossi parasitises live Lithospermum arvense

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
oospore of Peronospora myosotidis parasitises live Lithospermum arvense

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: March-April.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lithospermum incrassatum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lithospermum incrassatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Buglossoides arvensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Buglossoides arvensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Lithospermum arvense

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lithospermum arvense

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

This adaptable plant can be found in full or partial sun and mesic conditions in fertile loam, clay-loam, or sandy soil. Open areas are preferred where there is a scarcity of taller plants.
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Wikipedia

Lithospermum arvense

Lithospermum arvense (Field Gromwell, Corn Gromwell, Bastard Alkanet) is a flowering plant of the family Boraginaceae. It is also known as Buglossoides arvensis.[1]

It is native to Europe and Asia, as far north as Korea, Japan and Russia, and as far south as Afghanistan and northern Pakistan.[1] It is known in other places as an introduced species, including much of North America and Australia.[2][3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Lithospermum arvense Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 132. 1753.". Flora of China. 
  2. ^ USDA Plants Profile
  3. ^ "Buglossoides arvensis". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government, Canberra. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
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Notes

Comments

Often confused with the more common Buglossoides tenuiflora. Found up to 1400 m.
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Comments

A highly variable species with several infraspecific taxa recognized in Europe.
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