Overview

Comprehensive Description

Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub to Small Tree
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Distribution

"
Global Distribution

India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Japan, North Australia and Africa

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Alappuzha, Kollam, Idukki, Thiruvananthapuram, Palakkad

"
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Small trees to 4 m tall; bark dark grey, fissured, rough. Leaves alternate, 1-2.5 x 1-1.8 cm, obovate-oblong or spathulate, base cuneate to attenuate, apex obtuse to emarginate, coriaceous; petiole to 2 mm long. Flowers 1-3, in axillary fascicles, white. Male flower: calyx pale yellowish, c. 2 mm long, cup-shaped, lobes 3, 1-1.5 mm long, triangular-ovate, acute; corolla tube 5 -6 mm long, tubular, lobes 3, 1 -1.5 mm long, oblong-ovate, acute ; stamens 6, c. 2 mm long. Female flower: similar to male one; ovary c. 2 mm long, globose, silky-pubescent, stigmas 3. Berry 5-7 mm long, subglobose, yellow to brownish red. Seeds 1-3, c. 4 mm long, wedge-shaped."
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Type Information

Isotype for Diospyros sandwicensis var. ovalis H. St. John
Catalog Number: US 3335707
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Degener & T. Murashige
Year Collected: 1949
Locality: N of Halawa Valley., Maui, Moloka`i, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Isotype: St. John, H. 1986. Phytologia. 59: 395.
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Isotype for Diospyros sandwicensis var. puberula H. St. John
Catalog Number: US 2062364
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Degener & A. B. Greenwell
Year Collected: 1952
Locality: Along ditch trail, W slope of Pelolu Valley., Maui, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
Elevation (m): 457 to 457
  • Isotype: St. John, H. 1986. Phytologia. 59: 399.
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Isotype for Diospyros sandwicensis var. rugosa H. St. John
Catalog Number: US 2156407
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Degener & E. Ordonez
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: 0.75 mi SW of Hokunui, Nawiliwili, summit ridge, Kaua`i, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Isotype: St. John, H. 1986. Phytologia. 59: 397.
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Isotype for Diospyros sandwicensis var. rugosa H. St. John
Catalog Number: US 2333313
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Degener & E. Ordonez
Locality: 0.75 mi SW of Hakunui, Nawiliwili, Kaua`i, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Isotype: St. John, H. 1986. Phytologia. 59: 397.
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Isotype for Diospyros sandwicensis var. oahuensis H. St. John
Catalog Number: US 1758704
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Degener, -. Ordonez & -- Forster
Year Collected: 1939
Locality: N side of Kaluanui Valley., Honolulu, O`ahu, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Isotype: St. John, H. 1986. Phytologia. 59: 394.
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Isotype for Diospyros sandwicensis var. rugosa H. St. John
Catalog Number: US 1758723
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): O. Degener & E. Ordonez
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: 3/4 mi SW of Hokunui., Kaua`i, Hawaii, United States, Hawaiian Archipelago, Pacific Islands
  • Isotype: St. John, H. 1986. Phytologia. 59: 397.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Dry deciduous forests
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: February-May
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Diospyros sandwicensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Barcode data: Diospyros ferrea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diospyros sandwicensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diospyros ferrea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Diospyros ferrea

Diospyros ferrea, known as Black ebony, is a tree in the Ebony family, distributed in Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malay Peninsula, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Laos (Khammouan).

Common names[edit]

  • Philippines - batulinau
  • Indonesia - bibisan, ai meten, wawama
  • Sri Lanka - Hik-ul-Haenda
  • French - ngavi du fourré littoral (‘ngavi’ of littoral thickets, Aubréville).
  • West African - GHANA ADANGME gblεt∫o (FRI) NIGERIA HAUSA kas kawami (KO&S) YORUBA paroko (KO&S) SENEGAL DIOLA (Bayot) é tikuñi (JB) MANDING-MANINKA ko gélin ko: tree (JB) WOLOF sélah (JB)

Distribution[edit]

From West Africa to India, Indo-China, north to the Ryukyu Islands, east to the Malesian area, Australia, Melanesia and Polynesia.

Appearance[edit]

Trees with black bark, exudates absent. Leaves veins distinctly arching and anastomosing at margin, visible on mature leaves only. Flowers unisexual on different trees. Flower calyx with 3 green sepals 3, green, persistent in fruit.

Habitat[edit]

It is an evergreen shrub or small tree up to 12 m high, branches ascending. In the trunk, bole is straight. Bark fissured, blackish, and lenticelled.

Morphology[edit]

Leaves are simple, alternate and distichous, about 3-11 by 1.5-7 cmin length, shape is oblong or elliptic or obovate. Apex is acute; base is acute to attenuate or slightly rounded. Margin is entire, blade coriaceous, glabrous on both sides. Midrib of the leaf is flat above, primary vein is single, secondary veins are oblique to the midrib, widely parallel, tertiary veins are oblique. Petiole pubescent later glabrescent. Stipule absent.

Uses[edit]

The wood is said to be used for cabinet work. The bark can be used to make a cordage. D. ferrea is reported to be an important source of black ebony, but this is doubtful because of the unsatisfactory taxonomy of the group involved.

References[edit]

  • Lemmens, R.H.M.J.; Soerianegara, I.; Wong, W.C., eds. (1995). Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5 (2). Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers. pp. 193–194. 

External resources[edit]

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