Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Taiwan (Guishan Dao, Hengchun peninsula, Lanyu) [Indonesia, Philippines]
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees to 20 m, evergreen. Bark dark brown. Branchlets green when young, sericeous, becoming gray and glabrous. Winter buds sericeous. Petiole 0.5--1.7 cm, robust, densely pubescent; leaf blade oblong to oblong-elliptic, (7.5--)20--30 X (3.5--)7--11 cm, leathery, abaxially sericeous to appressed pubescent when young but becoming glaucous, glabrous, and with small but sharply delimited sunken glands scattered between lateral veins and 3--12 mm from midrib, adaxially glabrous, drying abaxially grayish and adaxially brown, base rounded to shallowly cordate, apex acuminate, acute, or rarely obtuse, lateral veins 10--14 or more per side and inconspicuous, reticulate veinlets almost invisible. Male flowers in sericeous (1--)3--7-flowered cymes or racemes, fragrant; pedicels 1--7 mm, densely villous; calyx densely villous, lobes 4 and oblong; corolla white, urn-shaped, outside slightly hairy; corolla lobes 4, reflexed; stamens 24. Female flowers solitary, similar to male flowers, subsessile; staminodes apparently absent; style apparently 3-cleft. Fruit sessile. Fruiting calyx 1.4--2.8 cm in diam., outside densely sericeous; lobes 4, recurved, oblong, 1--1.5 cm, villous. Berries red to pink, globose, ca. 8 cm, 8--10-locular, densely rusty, yellowish, or gray villose. Seeds dark brown with thin pale skin, 3-sided, ca. 2.7 X 1.4 X 1.4 cm. Fl. Mar-May, fr. Nov.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Cavanillea philippensis Desrousseaux in Lamarck, Encycl. 3: 663. 1792; Diospyros discolor Willdenow; D. utilis Hemsley.
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Type Information

Isotype for Diospyros anzoateguiensis Steyerm.
Catalog Number: US 1998346
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. A. Steyermark
Year Collected: 1945
Locality: Between Bergantin and San Jose., Anzoategui, Venezuela, South America
Elevation (m): 300 to 400
  • Isotype: Steyermark, J. A. 1953. Fieldiana, Bot. 28: 489.
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Isotype for Diospyros delgadoi Standl.
Catalog Number: US 1693606
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Delgado
Year Collected: 1937
Locality: Trentina, boundary between Lara & Trujillo, Trentina., Lara, Venezuela, South America
  • Isotype: Standley, P. C. 1940. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 22: 97.
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Ecology

Habitat

Coastal forests, sometimes forming pure stands; 0--200 m.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Diospyros blancoi

Kamagong, mabolo (both in Philippines), butter fruit (Singapore) or velvet apple (scientific name: Diospyros blancoi) is a plant of the genus of ebony trees and persimmons, Diospyros. Its edible fruit has a skin covered in a fine, velvety fur which is usually reddish-brown, and soft, creamy, pink flesh, with a taste and aroma comparable to fruit cream cheese (the aroma of the fruit itself, however, is unpleasant, comparable to rotten cheese or cat feces; inspiring names like the French "Caca de Chat" in Reunion). It is native to the Philippines,[1] where kamagong usually refers to the entire tree, and mabolo is applied to the fruit. It is also found in the Micronesian Islands of Palau, known as matib (Palauan). Velvet apple trees rarely found in Sri Lanka too.

Cultivation[edit]

Mabolo fruit

It is a dioecious tropical tree that grows well in a diversity of soil, from the sea level to the 2,400 feet above sea level. Seed trees are normally planted 30 or 45 feet from each other; this one can be planted from 25 to 30 feet from each other. It needs a good distribution of rainfall through the year. Trees that were planted by seeds could take 6 or 7 years to give out fruit, but trees that were propagated by cuttings produce fruit in 3 or 4 years. It is a very productive tree. In Puerto Rico it produces through the months of August and October. In Cebu, Philippines there is a barangay named after the fruit itself. In Bangladesh it is known as 'bilati gab' (=foreign gab), to distinguish it from 'gab' (Diospyros peregrina).

The fact that fruits vary greatly - in shape, color, hairiness and taste - suggests that there is a great deal of genetic variation in the plant. Seedless cultivars exist, and are highly favored since in the normal varieties the large seeds occupy a considerable volume of the fruit.

Timber[edit]

Kamagong Chair

Kamagong timber is extremely dense and hard and is famous for its dark color. Like many other very hard woods, it is sometimes called "iron wood" so called because its wood is iron-like and nearly unbreakable.

Finished products from kamagong wood, such as fine furniture and decoratives can be exported provided that they are properly documented and approved by the Customs authorities. Kamagong is also popular for martial arts training implements such as bokkens and eskrima sticks.

Secondary metabolites[edit]

The leaves of mabolo have been shown to contain isoarborinol methyl ether (also called cylindrin) and fatty esters of α- and β-amyrin.[2] Both isoarborinol methyl ether and the amyrin mixture demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.[2] Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties have also been shown for the isolated amyrin mixture.[2]

Governance[edit]

It is an endangered tree species and protected by Philippine law - it is illegal to export kamagong timber from the country without special permission from the Bureau of Forestry, Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

Synonyms[edit]

Junior synonyms of D. blancoi are:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida’s Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 135. ISBN 1561643726. 
  2. ^ a b c Ragasa, CY Puno, MR Sengson, JMA Shen, CC Rideout, JA Raga, DD (November 2009). "Bioactive triterpenes from Diospyros blancoi". Natural Product Research 23 (13): 1252–1258. doi:10.1080/14786410902951054. PMID 19731144. 
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Notes

Comments

Diospyros philippensis is cultivated throughout tropical Asia and tropical America. The fruit are edible after removing hairs and skin but do not taste good. The wood is hard, tough, fine textured, similar to ebony, and is used for furniture, crafts, and exterior work.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Native to the Philippines.

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